Objective To describe the treatment and outcomes of patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis. Methods We retrospectively studied a cohort of 163 consecutive patients with primary CNS vasculitis who were seen at the Mayo Clinic over a 29-year period. We analyzed treatments, treatment responses, and factors predictive of outcomes. Results A favorable response was observed in 85% of patients treated with prednisone alone and in 80% of patients treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide. Relapses were observed in 27% of patients, and 25% of patients had discontinued therapy by the time of the last followup visit. Treatment with prednisone alone was associated with more frequent relapses (odds ratio [OR] 2.90), while large vessel involvement (OR 6.14) and cerebral infarcts at the time of diagnosis (OR 3.32) were associated with a poor response to treatment. Prominent gadolinium-enhanced cerebral lesions or meninges were linked with continued treatment at the last followup encounter (OR 2.28). Higher disability scores at the last followup visit were associated with increasing age at the time of diagnosis (OR 1.44) and cerebral infarctions (OR 3.74), while lower disability scores were associated with gadolinium-enhanced cerebral lesions or meninges (OR 0.35) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (OR 0.24). Increased mortality was associated with increasing age at diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.39), diagnosis by angiography (HR 3.28), cerebral infarction (HR 4.44), and large vessel involvement (HR 4.98), while reduced mortality was associated with gadolinium-enhanced cerebral lesions or meninges (HR 0.20). Conclusion The majority of patients with primary CNS vasculitis responded to treatment. Recognition of findings at diagnosis that predict the course or outcome may aid in decision-making regarding therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy