OBJECTIVE - Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), pentosidine and malondialdehyde (MDA), are elevated in type 2 diabetic subjects with coronary and carotid angiopathy. We investigated the relationship of AGEs, MDA, total reactive antioxidant potentials (TRAPs), and vitamin E in type 2 diabetic patients with and without peripheral artery disease (PAD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - AGEs, pentosidine, MDA, TRAP, vitamin E, and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were measured in 99 consecutive type 2 diabetic subjects and 20 control subjects. RESULTS - AGEs, pentosidine, and MDA were higher and vitamin E and TRAP were lower in patients with PAD (ABI 0.9) (P <0.001). After multiple regression analysis, a correlation between AGEs and pentosidine, as independent variables, and ABI, as the dependent variable, was found in both patients with and without PAD (r = 0.9198, P <0.001 and r = 0.5764, P <0.001, respectively) but not in control subjects. When individual regression coefficients were evaluated, only that due to pentosidine was confirmed as significant. For patients with PAD, considering TRAP, vitamin E, and MDA as independent variables and ABI as the dependent variable produced an overall significant regression (r = 0.6913, P <0.001). The regression coefficients for TRAP and vitamin E were not significant, indicating that the model is best explained by a single linear regression between MDA and ABI. These findings were also confirmed by principal component analysis. CONCLUSIONS - Results show that pentosidine and MDA are strongly associated with PAD in type 2 diabetic patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Internal Medicine