Advantages of gravity-assisted diuretic renogram: F + 10 (seated position) method

Girolamo Tartaglione, Nazario Foschi, Salvatore M. Recupero, Francesco P. Ieria, Giulio Tarantino, Pierfrancesco Bassi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction In 1978, O'Reilly introduced the diuretic renogram using the F + 20 method. Initially, the patient was examined in the seated position. A dose of 40 mg furosemide was injected intravenously 20 min following tracer injection and dynamic acquisition was prolonged for 15-20 min. In 1992, the guidelines suggested to study patients in the supine position to avoid risk of diuretic-induced hypotension and reduce patient movement. Unfortunately, equivocal findings were reported in 15-30% of cases. Side effects such as bladder fullness and disruption because of voiding were reported. Several methods had been proposed in the supine position, such as the well-tempered diuretic renogram F + 20, F - 15, F0 and F + 2, with different time in minute of diuretic administration in relation to tracer injection. However, as confirmed by many studies, there was no clear evidence suggesting superiority among these methods. We suggest using the diuretic renogram with the F ± 10(sp) method for the diagnosis of obstruction in adult patients with hydronephrosis and for the follow-up in patients who underwent a surgical treatment of the urinary tract. Methods We searched all international guidelines and articles of most influential authors published from 1978 to October 2020 on diuretic renogram. Results We selected 60 articles. Discussion F + 10(sp) method improves patient compliance avoiding bladder fullness-related problems, without need of catheterization. It allows for a more reliable quantification of the renal output, thanks to outflow indices that are favored by gravity effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)602-610
Number of pages9
JournalNuclear Medicine Communications
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • diuretic renogram
  • F+10(sp)
  • gravity
  • kidney/diagnostic imaging
  • seated position
  • [99 m] Tc-MAG3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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