Objective: The placental development has been shown to be compromised in pregnancies affected by fetal congenital heart defects (CHD). This study aimed to investigate the frequency of complications related to utero-placental insufficiency in pregnancies with and without major CHD. Method: This retrospective case-control study was conducted at a Fetal Echocardiography Center in Milan. The following outcomes were compared between the two groups: preeclampsia (PE), small for gestational age (SGA), placental disorders and preterm birth (PTB). The logistic regression analysis was adjusted for maternal age, parity, co-morbidities and mode of conception. Results: The CHD group (n = 480) showed significantly increased incidence of PE (2.9% vs 0.9%; aOR, 6.50; 95% CI, 1.39-30.41; P =.017) as compared to the control group (n = 456). Placental disorders occurred more frequently in the CHD than in controls, but the increased risk showed only a borderline significance (4.5% vs 3.3%; aOR, 2.56; 95% CI, 0.99-1.02; P =.046). There was a significantly higher risk of SGA in CHD than in controls (8.7% vs 3.9%; aOR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.51-7.51; P =.003). PTB occurred in 65/477 (13.6%) cases and in 39/447 (8.7%) controls (P =.022) (aOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24-3.81; P =.007). Conclusion: Major CHD are significantly associated with the risk of PE, SGA and PTB.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology