Age- and Sex-Related Changes in Labial Dimensions of Sudanese Youngs of Arab Descent: A Three-Dimensional Cross-Sectional Study

Claudia Dolci, Fadil Elamin, Daniele M Gibelli, Luisa Barni, Alessandra Scolaro, Fabiola Sessa, Cinzia Maspero, Annalisa Cappella, Chiarella Sforza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Proper evaluation of facial features during growth and development requires the knowledge of anthropometric reference values validated for ethnicity, sex and age. In order to provide information concerning the normal sex-related size of the lips during childhood and young adulthood in Sudanese people of Arab descent, the three-dimensional coordinates of nine labial soft tissue landmarks were obtained by a laser scanner in 332 male and 386 female healthy Northern Sudanese subjects aged 3-30 years. Six labial linear distances, the vermilion height to mouth width ratio, vermilion areas and lip volumes were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance (p < 0.01). All labial dimensions significantly increased with age. Significant effects of sex were found for four measurements only, with very small effect size; nonetheless, lips and their parts grew faster in females than in males at almost all ages. Philtrum width was the first linear distance that attained adult values. The vermilion height to mouth width ratio was nearly constant across the age groups. Data collected in this study contribute to information about ethnic-specific lip morphology during growth and development. As orolabial features change over time with their own pattern, the relevant age-related trends should be properly considered for clinical treatment planning.

Original languageEnglish
Article number574
JournalChildren (Basel, Switzerland)
Volume8
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 4 2021

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