Background/Aims: The prognosis of cloacogenic carcinoma of the anorectum has rarely been investigated, and its clinical behavior is supposed to be similar to common squamous anal cancers. During the last 10 years, chemoradiation treatment (CRT) has been considered the standard of care for anal cancer. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the treatment of cloacogenic cancers treated within the framework of a multidisciplinary cancer center team during an 8-year period. The medical records of 7 patients affected by cloacogenic carcinoma were analyzed. Three patients presented distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. CRT using 5-fluorouracil + mitomycin or cisplatin was considered the gold standard for those cases amenable to cure. Results: After a mean follow-up time of 33 months (range 9-100), disease recurrence or progression was observed in 6 patients, which caused death in 3 of them. Three- and 5-year actuarial overall survival rates were 71 and 48%, respectively. Conclusions: Our data seem to suggest that the cloacogenic origin could present prognostic relevance within the wide spectrum of anal cancers. This should be carefully considered when submitting patients to aggressive and prolonged treatments. However, this hypothesis needs to be confirmed by larger series of this disease.
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