Aging is a major risk factor for heart failure, one of the leading causes of death in Western society. The mechanisms that underlie the different forms of heart failure have been elucidated only in part and the role of noncoding RNAs is still poorly characterized. Specifically, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs that can modulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level in all cells, including myocardial and vascular cells, have been shown to play a role in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. In contrast, miRNAs role in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, the predominant form of heart failure in the elderly, is still unknown. In this review, we will focus on age-dependent miRNAs in heart failure and on some other conditions that are prevalent in the elderly and are frequently associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.