Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) blasts with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analogs, in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), results in the upregulation of the expression of leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP), a marker for the differentiation of the granulocyte. The synergistic interaction between the cyclic nucleotide analogs and the retinoid is not unique to APL cells, as it is observed also in the peripheral granulocytes of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. The molecular mechanisms underlying LAP induction were studied in NB4, an immortalized APL cell line. Induction of LAP enzymatic activity is dependent on the time of exposure and on the concentrations of dibutyryl- cAMP or 8-bromo-cAMP and ATRA, two factors that influence the kinetics of appearance of detectable levels of the enzyme. Augmentation of LAP levels by ATRA and cAMP is the result of both transcriptional and early posttranscriptional events and requires de novo protein synthesis. LAP induction correlates with augmentation in the levels of the type I catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase transcript and with granulocytic differentiation. The transcriptional component of the process leading to increased LAP gene expression was reproduced in its main features by transient transfection experiments performed in COS-7 cells using the normal retinoic acid receptor type α (RAn-α) or the APL-specific aberrant form (PM L-RAR) and the upstream promoter of the liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K)-type alkaline phosphatase gene. The promoter is upregulated by treatment with ATRA, and this upregulation is further increased by cAMP analogs.
|Number of pages||17|
|Publication status||Published - 1995|
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