Background: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common disease consisting of pruriginous erithematous-vesicular eruption localized at the site of penetration of small molecular weight chemicals, called haptens. Methods: The availablity of valuable animal models and gentically altered mice, as well as new in vitro methdologies for T-cell isolation and characterization, greatly improved knowledge on the mechanisms of induction and regulation of ACD. Results: Both mouse and human studies have provided evidence that ACD is a highly regulated phenomenon. CD8+ and Th1 CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen are the major effector cell populations involved in the disease, and mediated the tissue damage through direct cytotoxic mechanisms and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Hapten-specific CD4+ T cells also comprise specialized lymphocytes with regulatory functions, which appear to be involved in the termination of the immune reaction and in the control of hapten-specific T-cell responses in nonallergic individuals. Conclusions: Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of ACD have a great impact on the development of new therapeutic strategies for immune-mediated skin diseases.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Allergy and Clinical Immunology International|
|Publication status||Published - 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy