Allergic contact dermatitis in children

Which factors are relevant? (review of the literature)

Flora B. De Waard-van der Spek, Klaus E. Andersen, Ulf Darsow, Charlotte G. Mortz, David Orton, Margitta Worm, Antonella Muraro, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Ramon Grimalt, Radoslaw Spiewak, Odilija Rudzeviciene, Carsten Flohr, Susanne Halken, Alessandro Fiocchi, Luis M. Borrego, Arnold P. Oranje

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-329
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Allergy and Immunology
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

Fingerprint

Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Allergens
Play and Playthings
Patch Tests
Haptens
Eczema
Dermatitis
Perfume
Skin
Clothing
Shoes
Neomycin
Textiles
Contact Dermatitis
Rubber
Atopic Dermatitis
Cosmetics
Foot
Leg
Age Groups

Keywords

  • Allergens
  • Allergic contact dermatitis
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Children
  • Chronic recurrent eczema
  • Haptens
  • Irritants
  • Patch tests
  • Sensitization
  • Therapy-resistant eczema

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Immunology

Cite this

De Waard-van der Spek, F. B., Andersen, K. E., Darsow, U., Mortz, C. G., Orton, D., Worm, M., ... Oranje, A. P. (2013). Allergic contact dermatitis in children: Which factors are relevant? (review of the literature). Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 24(4), 321-329. https://doi.org/10.1111/pai.12043

Allergic contact dermatitis in children : Which factors are relevant? (review of the literature). / De Waard-van der Spek, Flora B.; Andersen, Klaus E.; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G.; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M.; Oranje, Arnold P.

In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Vol. 24, No. 4, 06.2013, p. 321-329.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

De Waard-van der Spek, FB, Andersen, KE, Darsow, U, Mortz, CG, Orton, D, Worm, M, Muraro, A, Schmid-Grendelmeier, P, Grimalt, R, Spiewak, R, Rudzeviciene, O, Flohr, C, Halken, S, Fiocchi, A, Borrego, LM & Oranje, AP 2013, 'Allergic contact dermatitis in children: Which factors are relevant? (review of the literature)', Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 321-329. https://doi.org/10.1111/pai.12043
De Waard-van der Spek FB, Andersen KE, Darsow U, Mortz CG, Orton D, Worm M et al. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: Which factors are relevant? (review of the literature). Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2013 Jun;24(4):321-329. https://doi.org/10.1111/pai.12043
De Waard-van der Spek, Flora B. ; Andersen, Klaus E. ; Darsow, Ulf ; Mortz, Charlotte G. ; Orton, David ; Worm, Margitta ; Muraro, Antonella ; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter ; Grimalt, Ramon ; Spiewak, Radoslaw ; Rudzeviciene, Odilija ; Flohr, Carsten ; Halken, Susanne ; Fiocchi, Alessandro ; Borrego, Luis M. ; Oranje, Arnold P. / Allergic contact dermatitis in children : Which factors are relevant? (review of the literature). In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2013 ; Vol. 24, No. 4. pp. 321-329.
@article{0a11251e04a444e285350b855f49999d,
title = "Allergic contact dermatitis in children: Which factors are relevant? (review of the literature)",
abstract = "Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children.",
keywords = "Allergens, Allergic contact dermatitis, Atopic dermatitis, Children, Chronic recurrent eczema, Haptens, Irritants, Patch tests, Sensitization, Therapy-resistant eczema",
author = "{De Waard-van der Spek}, {Flora B.} and Andersen, {Klaus E.} and Ulf Darsow and Mortz, {Charlotte G.} and David Orton and Margitta Worm and Antonella Muraro and Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier and Ramon Grimalt and Radoslaw Spiewak and Odilija Rudzeviciene and Carsten Flohr and Susanne Halken and Alessandro Fiocchi and Borrego, {Luis M.} and Oranje, {Arnold P.}",
year = "2013",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1111/pai.12043",
language = "English",
volume = "24",
pages = "321--329",
journal = "Pediatric Allergy and Immunology",
issn = "0905-6157",
publisher = "Blackwell Munksgaard",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Allergic contact dermatitis in children

T2 - Which factors are relevant? (review of the literature)

AU - De Waard-van der Spek, Flora B.

AU - Andersen, Klaus E.

AU - Darsow, Ulf

AU - Mortz, Charlotte G.

AU - Orton, David

AU - Worm, Margitta

AU - Muraro, Antonella

AU - Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

AU - Grimalt, Ramon

AU - Spiewak, Radoslaw

AU - Rudzeviciene, Odilija

AU - Flohr, Carsten

AU - Halken, Susanne

AU - Fiocchi, Alessandro

AU - Borrego, Luis M.

AU - Oranje, Arnold P.

PY - 2013/6

Y1 - 2013/6

N2 - Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children.

AB - Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children.

KW - Allergens

KW - Allergic contact dermatitis

KW - Atopic dermatitis

KW - Children

KW - Chronic recurrent eczema

KW - Haptens

KW - Irritants

KW - Patch tests

KW - Sensitization

KW - Therapy-resistant eczema

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84878141191&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84878141191&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/pai.12043

DO - 10.1111/pai.12043

M3 - Article

VL - 24

SP - 321

EP - 329

JO - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

JF - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

SN - 0905-6157

IS - 4

ER -