Allergic contact dermatitis

Novel mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives

Andrea Cavani, Anastasia De Luca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Allergic contact dermatitis is a common eczematous skin disease that occurs in sensitized individuals at the site of contact with small chemicals penetrating the skin barrier. The onset of the disease is mostly due to the rapid recruitment of chemical-specific CD8+ T cells, which induce apoptosis of keratinocytes. Additionally, CD4+ Th1 and Th17 contribute to the extension of the inflammatory reaction by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate keratinocytes and other skin resident cells. The immune reaction is tightly regulated through multiple mechanisms. In particular, T cell population with regulatory function, such as T regulatory cells 1 and CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells have a critical role in preventing the development of allergic reactions to innocuous chemicals contacting the skin, and in limiting the magnitude of the inflammatory process in already sensitized individuals. Allergic contact dermatitis is a chronic disease, which lasts, in most cases, for the entire life of the affected individual. Thus, prevention and avoidance of contact with the sensitizer are critical factors in the management of affected patients. The gold standard therapeutic approach for the disease remains the local and/or systemic immunosuppression, aimed to block T cell functions and keratinocyte responsiveness to pro-inflammatory stimuli. However, alternative approaches that aim at preventing T cell accumulation in peripheral tissues are under investigation. Most recently, disclosure of mechanisms regulating allergic contact dermatitis have provided new therapeutic perspectives for the disease, mostly based on immunomodulatory interventions, as in the case of induction of specific oral tolerance to the causative allergen.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)228-233
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Drug Metabolism
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2010

Fingerprint

Dermatitis
Allergic Contact Dermatitis
T-cells
Keratinocytes
T-Lymphocytes
Skin
Regulatory T-Lymphocytes
Eczematous Skin Diseases
Antigen-antibody reactions
Disclosure
Therapeutics
Allergens
Immunosuppression
Hypersensitivity
Chronic Disease
Apoptosis
Cytokines
Tissue
Population

Keywords

  • Allergic contact dermatitis
  • Immunomodulators
  • Oral tolerance
  • T lymphocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Allergic contact dermatitis : Novel mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives. / Cavani, Andrea; De Luca, Anastasia.

In: Current Drug Metabolism, Vol. 11, No. 3, 03.2010, p. 228-233.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cavani, Andrea ; De Luca, Anastasia. / Allergic contact dermatitis : Novel mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives. In: Current Drug Metabolism. 2010 ; Vol. 11, No. 3. pp. 228-233.
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