Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) has been used as treatment for single patients with autoimmune diseases (AD). To summarise currently available information, we analyzed all patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT for AD and who reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) database. Thirty-five patients receiving 38 allogeneic transplantations for various hematological and non-hematological AD were identified. Four patients had had an allogeneic HSCT for a conventional hematological indication in the past. Fifty-five per cent of the transplantation procedures led to a complete clinical response of the refractory AD and 23% to at least a partial response. The median duration of response at the last follow-up was 70.7 (15.2-130) months. Three patients relapsed at a median of 12.3 months after HSCT. Treatment-related mortality at 2 years was 22.1% (95% CI: 7.3-36.9%). Two deaths were caused by progression of AD. The probability of survival at 2 years was 70%. No single factor predicting the outcome could be identified. The retrospective nature of this study and the heterogeneous, partly incomplete data are its limitations. However, allogeneic HSCT can induce remission in patients suffering from refractory AD. These data provide the basis for carefully conducted prospective trials.
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