OBJECTIVES: To assess in pregnant women with HIV the rates of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and the outcomes associated with such procedures. DESIGN: Observational study. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. SETTING: University and hospital clinics. POPULATION: Pregnant women with HIV. METHODS: Temporal trends were analysed by analysis of variance and by the Chi-square test for trend. Quantitative variables were compared by Student's t-test and categorical data by the Chi-square test, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of invasive testing, intrauterine death, HIV transmission. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2015, among 2065 pregnancies in women with HIV, 113 (5.5%) had invasive tests performed. The procedures were conducted under antiretroviral treatment in 99 cases (87.6%), with a significant increase over time in the proportion of tests performed under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (100% in 2011-2015). Three intrauterine deaths were observed (2.6%), and 14 pregnancies were terminated because of fetal anomalies. Among 96 live newborns, eight had no information available on HIV status. Among the remaining 88 cases with either amniocentesis (n = 75), CVS (n = 12), or both (n = 1), two HIV transmissions occurred (2.3%). No HIV transmission occurred among the women who were on HAART at the time of invasive testing, and none after 2005. CONCLUSIONS: The findings reinforce the assumption that invasive prenatal testing does not increase the risk of HIV vertical transmission among pregnant women under suppressive antiretroviral treatment. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: No HIV transmission occurred among women who underwent amniocentesis or CVS under effective anti-HIV regimens.
- birth defects
- chorionic villus sampling
- invasive testing
- mother-to child HIV transmission
- prenatal diagnosis