An Evidence-Based Multidisciplinary Approach Focused on Creating Algorithms for Targeted Therapy of Infection-Related Ventilator-Associated Complications (IVACs) Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in Critically Ill Adult Patients

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Abstract

(1) Background: To develop evidence-based algorithms for targeted antibiotic therapy of infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs) caused by non-fermenting Gram-negative pathogens. (2) Methods: A multidisciplinary team of four experts had several rounds of assessments for developing algorithms devoted to targeted antimicrobial therapy of IVACs caused by two non-fermenting Gram-negative pathogens. A literature search was performed on PubMed-MEDLINE (until September 2021) to provide evidence for supporting therapeutic choices. Quality and strength of evidence was established according to a hierarchical scale of the study design. Six different algorithms with associated recommendations in terms of therapeutic choice and dosing optimization were suggested according to the susceptibility pattern of two non-fermenting Gram-negative pathogens: multi-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), multidrug-resistant (MDR) metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-negative-PA, MBL-positive-PA, carbapenem-susceptible Acinetobacter bau-mannii (AB), and carbapenem-resistant AB. (3) Results: Piperacillin–tazobactam or fourth-generation cephalosporins represent the first therapeutic choice in IVACs caused by multi-susceptible PA. A carbapenem-sparing approach favouring the administration of novel beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors should be pursued in the management of MDR-MBL-negative PA infections. Cefiderocol should be used as first-line therapy for the management of IVACs caused by MBL-producing-PA or carbapenem-resistant AB. Fosfomycin-based combination therapy, as well as inhaled colistin, could be considered as a reasonable alternative for the management of IVACs due to MDR-PA and carbapenem-resistant AB. (4) Conclusions: The implementation of algorithms focused on prompt revision of antibiotic regimens guided by results of conventional and rapid diagnostic methodologies, appropriate place in therapy of novel beta-lactams, implementation of strategies for sparing the broadest-spectrum antibiotics, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic optimization of antibiotic dosing regimens is strongly suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Article number33
JournalAntibiotics
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial stewardship
  • Infection-related ventilator-associated complications
  • Multidisciplinary taskforce
  • Non-fermenting Gram-negative pathogens
  • PK/PD dosing optimization
  • Targeted antibiotic therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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