Dietary gliadin may show a broad spectrum of toxicity. The interplay between mitochondria and gliadin-induced oxidative stress has not been thoroughly examined in the intestinal epithelium. In this kinetic study, Caco-2 cells were exposed for 24 h to pepsin-trypsin-digested gliadin, alone or in combination with the antioxidant 2,6-di-tbutyl-p-cresol (BHT), and the effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and mtDNA were studied. Cells ability to recover from stress was determined after 24 h and 48 h of incubation in the culture medium. Gliadin-induced oxidative stress evoked a compensatory response. The stressor triggered a rapid and significant increase of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) and Peroxiredoxin III (PrxIII) proteins, and mtDNA amount. As for the effects of gliadin on mtDNA integrity, strand breaks, abasic sites, and modified bases were analyzed in three mtDNA regions. D-loop appeared a more fragile target than Ori-L and ND1/ND2. The temporal trend of the damage at D-loop paralleled that of the amount of mtDNA. Overall, a trend toward control values was shown 48 h after gliadin exposure. Finally, BHT was able to counteract the effects of gliadin. Results from this study highlighted the effects of gliadin-induced oxidative stress on mitochondria, providing valuable evidence that might improve the knowledge of the pathophysiology of gluten-related disorders.