An in vitro study to investigate the interference of enoxaparin on plasma levels of direct oral factor Xa inhibitors measured by chromogenic assays

Michela Cini, Cristina Legnani, Sophie Testa, Armando Tripodi, Benilde Cosmi, Gualtiero Palareti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Co-administration of enoxaparin and a direct oral factor Xa inhibitor (xabans: apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban) could give rise to the problem of overlapping the anti-Xa activity when measuring direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) levels. We aimed to evaluate in vitro the degree of the interference of increasing enoxaparin concentrations on xaban plasma levels measured by different chromogenic anti-Xa assays with drug-specific calibrators and controls. Methods: Seven plasma samples were spiked with apixaban, edoxaban, or rivaroxaban at fixed concentration, and enoxaparin at increasing concentrations (0, 0.125, 0.250, 0.50, 1.0, 1.50, and 2.0 IU/mL). The evaluated chromogenic assays were as follows: Biophen DiXaI and Biophen Heparin LRT (Hyphen BioMed), Berichrom Heparin and Innovance Heparin (Siemens), STA-Liquid Anti-Xa (Stago Diagnostics), Technochrom anti-Xa (Technoclone), and HemosIL Liquid Anti-Xa (Werfen). Results: The presence of enoxaparin caused increased DOAC levels, with over-estimation depending on the anti-Xa assay and on the heparin concentration in the sample. The smallest over-estimation was in the sample with enoxaparin 0.125 IU/mL and the greatest in the sample with enoxaparin 2.0 IU/mL (0%, 3.1%, and 7.4% vs 583.8%, 526.1%, and 415.2% for apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban, respectively). Biophen DiXaI showed lower interference compared to other methods (maximum over-estimation in the presence of enoxaparin 2.0 IU/mL: 56.4% dosing rivaroxaban by Biophen DIXaI vs 583.8% dosing apixaban by Berichrom Heparin). Conclusion: The presence of enoxaparin interferes with xabans measurement by chromogenic anti-Xa assays causing falsely elevated DOAC levels, the over-estimation being dependent on the anti-Xa assay and on the heparin concentration in the sample.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-315
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Volume41
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2019

Fingerprint

Chromogenics
Enoxaparin
Assays
Plasmas
Heparin
Anticoagulants
Factor Xa Inhibitors
In Vitro Techniques
Liquids
Rivaroxaban
apixaban

Keywords

  • apixaban
  • edoxaban
  • enoxaparin
  • interference
  • rivaroxaban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

Cite this

An in vitro study to investigate the interference of enoxaparin on plasma levels of direct oral factor Xa inhibitors measured by chromogenic assays. / Cini, Michela; Legnani, Cristina; Testa, Sophie; Tripodi, Armando; Cosmi, Benilde; Palareti, Gualtiero.

In: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology, Vol. 41, No. 3, 01.06.2019, p. 309-315.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - An in vitro study to investigate the interference of enoxaparin on plasma levels of direct oral factor Xa inhibitors measured by chromogenic assays

AU - Cini, Michela

AU - Legnani, Cristina

AU - Testa, Sophie

AU - Tripodi, Armando

AU - Cosmi, Benilde

AU - Palareti, Gualtiero

PY - 2019/6/1

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N2 - Introduction: Co-administration of enoxaparin and a direct oral factor Xa inhibitor (xabans: apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban) could give rise to the problem of overlapping the anti-Xa activity when measuring direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) levels. We aimed to evaluate in vitro the degree of the interference of increasing enoxaparin concentrations on xaban plasma levels measured by different chromogenic anti-Xa assays with drug-specific calibrators and controls. Methods: Seven plasma samples were spiked with apixaban, edoxaban, or rivaroxaban at fixed concentration, and enoxaparin at increasing concentrations (0, 0.125, 0.250, 0.50, 1.0, 1.50, and 2.0 IU/mL). The evaluated chromogenic assays were as follows: Biophen DiXaI and Biophen Heparin LRT (Hyphen BioMed), Berichrom Heparin and Innovance Heparin (Siemens), STA-Liquid Anti-Xa (Stago Diagnostics), Technochrom anti-Xa (Technoclone), and HemosIL Liquid Anti-Xa (Werfen). Results: The presence of enoxaparin caused increased DOAC levels, with over-estimation depending on the anti-Xa assay and on the heparin concentration in the sample. The smallest over-estimation was in the sample with enoxaparin 0.125 IU/mL and the greatest in the sample with enoxaparin 2.0 IU/mL (0%, 3.1%, and 7.4% vs 583.8%, 526.1%, and 415.2% for apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban, respectively). Biophen DiXaI showed lower interference compared to other methods (maximum over-estimation in the presence of enoxaparin 2.0 IU/mL: 56.4% dosing rivaroxaban by Biophen DIXaI vs 583.8% dosing apixaban by Berichrom Heparin). Conclusion: The presence of enoxaparin interferes with xabans measurement by chromogenic anti-Xa assays causing falsely elevated DOAC levels, the over-estimation being dependent on the anti-Xa assay and on the heparin concentration in the sample.

AB - Introduction: Co-administration of enoxaparin and a direct oral factor Xa inhibitor (xabans: apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban) could give rise to the problem of overlapping the anti-Xa activity when measuring direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) levels. We aimed to evaluate in vitro the degree of the interference of increasing enoxaparin concentrations on xaban plasma levels measured by different chromogenic anti-Xa assays with drug-specific calibrators and controls. Methods: Seven plasma samples were spiked with apixaban, edoxaban, or rivaroxaban at fixed concentration, and enoxaparin at increasing concentrations (0, 0.125, 0.250, 0.50, 1.0, 1.50, and 2.0 IU/mL). The evaluated chromogenic assays were as follows: Biophen DiXaI and Biophen Heparin LRT (Hyphen BioMed), Berichrom Heparin and Innovance Heparin (Siemens), STA-Liquid Anti-Xa (Stago Diagnostics), Technochrom anti-Xa (Technoclone), and HemosIL Liquid Anti-Xa (Werfen). Results: The presence of enoxaparin caused increased DOAC levels, with over-estimation depending on the anti-Xa assay and on the heparin concentration in the sample. The smallest over-estimation was in the sample with enoxaparin 0.125 IU/mL and the greatest in the sample with enoxaparin 2.0 IU/mL (0%, 3.1%, and 7.4% vs 583.8%, 526.1%, and 415.2% for apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban, respectively). Biophen DiXaI showed lower interference compared to other methods (maximum over-estimation in the presence of enoxaparin 2.0 IU/mL: 56.4% dosing rivaroxaban by Biophen DIXaI vs 583.8% dosing apixaban by Berichrom Heparin). Conclusion: The presence of enoxaparin interferes with xabans measurement by chromogenic anti-Xa assays causing falsely elevated DOAC levels, the over-estimation being dependent on the anti-Xa assay and on the heparin concentration in the sample.

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