An outbreak of extremely drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Italy

Marta Ciofi Degli Atti, Paola Bernaschi, Michaela Carletti, Ida Luzzi, Aurora García-Fernández, Alice Bertaina, Annamaria Sisto, Franco Locatelli, Massimiliano Raponi

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) isolates are susceptible to only one or two classes of antibiotics. In 2011-2012, we investigated an outbreak of XDR-PA affecting children with onco-hematological diseases.

METHODS: Outbreak investigation included ascertainment of cases, tracing of intestinal carriers and environmental surveillance. Contact precautions were adopted for patients with infection or colonization. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility; phenotypic confirmation of carbapenemase production was performed, and carbapenemase genes were tested by multiplex polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR). Genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

RESULTS: XDR-PA was isolated from 27 patients; 12 had bacteremia, 6 other infections and 9 were colonized. Severe neutropenia was significantly associated with bacteremia. Bloodstream-infection mortality rate was 67%. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems, cephalosporins and penicillins + β-lactamase inhibitors. Isolates were susceptible only to colistin in 22 patients, to colistin and amikacin in 4, and to ciprofloxacin and colistin in 1. PFGE results identified 6 subtypes of a single genotype, associated with clusters of cases, and 4 sporadic genotypes. Two sporadic isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producers, negative to PCR. All other isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producers due to the presence of a VIM carbapenemase. Incidence of XDR-PA infections decreased from 0.72 cases/1,000 inpatient-days in March 2011-March 2012, to 0.34/1,000 in April-December 2012, after implementation of active finding of intestinal carriers on all onco-hematological inpatients.

CONCLUSIONS: Control measures targeting intestinal carriers are crucial in limiting in-hospital transmission of XDR-PA polyclonal strains, protecting more vulnerable patients, such as severely neutropenic children, from developing clinical infections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)494
Number of pages1
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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Pediatric Hospitals
Tertiary Healthcare
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Italy
Disease Outbreaks
Colistin
Infection
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis
Genotype
Bacteremia
Inpatients
Carbapenems
Amikacin
Hematologic Diseases
Environmental Monitoring
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Cephalosporins
Ciprofloxacin
Neutropenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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An outbreak of extremely drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Italy. / Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta; Bernaschi, Paola; Carletti, Michaela; Luzzi, Ida; García-Fernández, Aurora; Bertaina, Alice; Sisto, Annamaria; Locatelli, Franco; Raponi, Massimiliano.

In: BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 14, 2014, p. 494.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) isolates are susceptible to only one or two classes of antibiotics. In 2011-2012, we investigated an outbreak of XDR-PA affecting children with onco-hematological diseases.METHODS: Outbreak investigation included ascertainment of cases, tracing of intestinal carriers and environmental surveillance. Contact precautions were adopted for patients with infection or colonization. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility; phenotypic confirmation of carbapenemase production was performed, and carbapenemase genes were tested by multiplex polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR). Genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).RESULTS: XDR-PA was isolated from 27 patients; 12 had bacteremia, 6 other infections and 9 were colonized. Severe neutropenia was significantly associated with bacteremia. Bloodstream-infection mortality rate was 67{\%}. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems, cephalosporins and penicillins + β-lactamase inhibitors. Isolates were susceptible only to colistin in 22 patients, to colistin and amikacin in 4, and to ciprofloxacin and colistin in 1. PFGE results identified 6 subtypes of a single genotype, associated with clusters of cases, and 4 sporadic genotypes. Two sporadic isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producers, negative to PCR. All other isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producers due to the presence of a VIM carbapenemase. Incidence of XDR-PA infections decreased from 0.72 cases/1,000 inpatient-days in March 2011-March 2012, to 0.34/1,000 in April-December 2012, after implementation of active finding of intestinal carriers on all onco-hematological inpatients.CONCLUSIONS: Control measures targeting intestinal carriers are crucial in limiting in-hospital transmission of XDR-PA polyclonal strains, protecting more vulnerable patients, such as severely neutropenic children, from developing clinical infections.",
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AU - Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta

AU - Bernaschi, Paola

AU - Carletti, Michaela

AU - Luzzi, Ida

AU - García-Fernández, Aurora

AU - Bertaina, Alice

AU - Sisto, Annamaria

AU - Locatelli, Franco

AU - Raponi, Massimiliano

PY - 2014

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) isolates are susceptible to only one or two classes of antibiotics. In 2011-2012, we investigated an outbreak of XDR-PA affecting children with onco-hematological diseases.METHODS: Outbreak investigation included ascertainment of cases, tracing of intestinal carriers and environmental surveillance. Contact precautions were adopted for patients with infection or colonization. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility; phenotypic confirmation of carbapenemase production was performed, and carbapenemase genes were tested by multiplex polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR). Genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).RESULTS: XDR-PA was isolated from 27 patients; 12 had bacteremia, 6 other infections and 9 were colonized. Severe neutropenia was significantly associated with bacteremia. Bloodstream-infection mortality rate was 67%. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems, cephalosporins and penicillins + β-lactamase inhibitors. Isolates were susceptible only to colistin in 22 patients, to colistin and amikacin in 4, and to ciprofloxacin and colistin in 1. PFGE results identified 6 subtypes of a single genotype, associated with clusters of cases, and 4 sporadic genotypes. Two sporadic isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producers, negative to PCR. All other isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producers due to the presence of a VIM carbapenemase. Incidence of XDR-PA infections decreased from 0.72 cases/1,000 inpatient-days in March 2011-March 2012, to 0.34/1,000 in April-December 2012, after implementation of active finding of intestinal carriers on all onco-hematological inpatients.CONCLUSIONS: Control measures targeting intestinal carriers are crucial in limiting in-hospital transmission of XDR-PA polyclonal strains, protecting more vulnerable patients, such as severely neutropenic children, from developing clinical infections.

AB - BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) isolates are susceptible to only one or two classes of antibiotics. In 2011-2012, we investigated an outbreak of XDR-PA affecting children with onco-hematological diseases.METHODS: Outbreak investigation included ascertainment of cases, tracing of intestinal carriers and environmental surveillance. Contact precautions were adopted for patients with infection or colonization. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility; phenotypic confirmation of carbapenemase production was performed, and carbapenemase genes were tested by multiplex polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR). Genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).RESULTS: XDR-PA was isolated from 27 patients; 12 had bacteremia, 6 other infections and 9 were colonized. Severe neutropenia was significantly associated with bacteremia. Bloodstream-infection mortality rate was 67%. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems, cephalosporins and penicillins + β-lactamase inhibitors. Isolates were susceptible only to colistin in 22 patients, to colistin and amikacin in 4, and to ciprofloxacin and colistin in 1. PFGE results identified 6 subtypes of a single genotype, associated with clusters of cases, and 4 sporadic genotypes. Two sporadic isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producers, negative to PCR. All other isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producers due to the presence of a VIM carbapenemase. Incidence of XDR-PA infections decreased from 0.72 cases/1,000 inpatient-days in March 2011-March 2012, to 0.34/1,000 in April-December 2012, after implementation of active finding of intestinal carriers on all onco-hematological inpatients.CONCLUSIONS: Control measures targeting intestinal carriers are crucial in limiting in-hospital transmission of XDR-PA polyclonal strains, protecting more vulnerable patients, such as severely neutropenic children, from developing clinical infections.

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