An unusual presentation of purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency mimicking systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis complicated by macrophage activation syndrome

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an inflammatory condition that presents with fever, rash and arthritis. At onset systemic features are predominant and the diagnosis may be a challenge. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) forms may be associated with different disorders, including rheumatic diseases, and this form is called macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). CXCL9 levels, a chemokine induced by IFNγ, are significantly elevated in patients with sHLH or MAS and are correlated with laboratory features of disease activity. High levels of IL-18 have been reported in patients with MAS during sJIA, as well as in some patients with sHLH and IL-18 is indeed known to induce IFNγ production.

FINDINGS: We report a patient with a clinical presentation highly suggestive for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) onset complicated by MAS, and was later diagnosed with purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)-deficiency with HLH. Some unusual features appeared when HLH was controlled and further investigations provided the correct diagnosis. Serum CXCL9 and IL-18 levels were found markedly elevated at disease onset, during the active phase of MAS and decreased progressively during the course.

CONCLUSION: The reported case underlines the potential difficulties in discriminating sJIA from other causes of systemic inflammation. Furthermore, this supports the notion that especially in young children with a sJIA-like disease other mimicking conditions should be actively sought for. CXCL9 and IL-18 levels suggested that patients with PNP-deficiency may have a subclinical activation of the IFNγ pathway and indeed they are predisposed to develop sHLH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25
JournalPediatric Rheumatology
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 22 2019

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Macrophage Activation Syndrome
Juvenile Arthritis
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
Interleukin-18
Exanthema
Rheumatic Diseases
Chemokines
Arthritis
Fever
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency
Inflammation
Serum

Cite this

@article{e8115ab6904946f99276b335c9619e7f,
title = "An unusual presentation of purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency mimicking systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis complicated by macrophage activation syndrome",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an inflammatory condition that presents with fever, rash and arthritis. At onset systemic features are predominant and the diagnosis may be a challenge. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) forms may be associated with different disorders, including rheumatic diseases, and this form is called macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). CXCL9 levels, a chemokine induced by IFNγ, are significantly elevated in patients with sHLH or MAS and are correlated with laboratory features of disease activity. High levels of IL-18 have been reported in patients with MAS during sJIA, as well as in some patients with sHLH and IL-18 is indeed known to induce IFNγ production.FINDINGS: We report a patient with a clinical presentation highly suggestive for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) onset complicated by MAS, and was later diagnosed with purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)-deficiency with HLH. Some unusual features appeared when HLH was controlled and further investigations provided the correct diagnosis. Serum CXCL9 and IL-18 levels were found markedly elevated at disease onset, during the active phase of MAS and decreased progressively during the course.CONCLUSION: The reported case underlines the potential difficulties in discriminating sJIA from other causes of systemic inflammation. Furthermore, this supports the notion that especially in young children with a sJIA-like disease other mimicking conditions should be actively sought for. CXCL9 and IL-18 levels suggested that patients with PNP-deficiency may have a subclinical activation of the IFNγ pathway and indeed they are predisposed to develop sHLH.",
author = "Alessia Arduini and Emiliano Marasco and Giulia Marucci and Manuela Pardeo and Antonella Insalaco and Ivan Caiello and Moneta, {Gian Marco} and Giusi Prencipe and {De Benedetti}, Fabrizio and Claudia Bracaglia",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "22",
doi = "10.1186/s12969-019-0328-3",
language = "English",
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pages = "25",
journal = "Pediatric Rheumatology",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - An unusual presentation of purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency mimicking systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis complicated by macrophage activation syndrome

AU - Arduini, Alessia

AU - Marasco, Emiliano

AU - Marucci, Giulia

AU - Pardeo, Manuela

AU - Insalaco, Antonella

AU - Caiello, Ivan

AU - Moneta, Gian Marco

AU - Prencipe, Giusi

AU - De Benedetti, Fabrizio

AU - Bracaglia, Claudia

PY - 2019/5/22

Y1 - 2019/5/22

N2 - BACKGROUND: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an inflammatory condition that presents with fever, rash and arthritis. At onset systemic features are predominant and the diagnosis may be a challenge. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) forms may be associated with different disorders, including rheumatic diseases, and this form is called macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). CXCL9 levels, a chemokine induced by IFNγ, are significantly elevated in patients with sHLH or MAS and are correlated with laboratory features of disease activity. High levels of IL-18 have been reported in patients with MAS during sJIA, as well as in some patients with sHLH and IL-18 is indeed known to induce IFNγ production.FINDINGS: We report a patient with a clinical presentation highly suggestive for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) onset complicated by MAS, and was later diagnosed with purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)-deficiency with HLH. Some unusual features appeared when HLH was controlled and further investigations provided the correct diagnosis. Serum CXCL9 and IL-18 levels were found markedly elevated at disease onset, during the active phase of MAS and decreased progressively during the course.CONCLUSION: The reported case underlines the potential difficulties in discriminating sJIA from other causes of systemic inflammation. Furthermore, this supports the notion that especially in young children with a sJIA-like disease other mimicking conditions should be actively sought for. CXCL9 and IL-18 levels suggested that patients with PNP-deficiency may have a subclinical activation of the IFNγ pathway and indeed they are predisposed to develop sHLH.

AB - BACKGROUND: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an inflammatory condition that presents with fever, rash and arthritis. At onset systemic features are predominant and the diagnosis may be a challenge. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) forms may be associated with different disorders, including rheumatic diseases, and this form is called macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). CXCL9 levels, a chemokine induced by IFNγ, are significantly elevated in patients with sHLH or MAS and are correlated with laboratory features of disease activity. High levels of IL-18 have been reported in patients with MAS during sJIA, as well as in some patients with sHLH and IL-18 is indeed known to induce IFNγ production.FINDINGS: We report a patient with a clinical presentation highly suggestive for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) onset complicated by MAS, and was later diagnosed with purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)-deficiency with HLH. Some unusual features appeared when HLH was controlled and further investigations provided the correct diagnosis. Serum CXCL9 and IL-18 levels were found markedly elevated at disease onset, during the active phase of MAS and decreased progressively during the course.CONCLUSION: The reported case underlines the potential difficulties in discriminating sJIA from other causes of systemic inflammation. Furthermore, this supports the notion that especially in young children with a sJIA-like disease other mimicking conditions should be actively sought for. CXCL9 and IL-18 levels suggested that patients with PNP-deficiency may have a subclinical activation of the IFNγ pathway and indeed they are predisposed to develop sHLH.

U2 - 10.1186/s12969-019-0328-3

DO - 10.1186/s12969-019-0328-3

M3 - Article

C2 - 31118063

VL - 17

SP - 25

JO - Pediatric Rheumatology

JF - Pediatric Rheumatology

SN - 1546-0096

IS - 1

ER -