Background: Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic disease that is characterized by decreased bone density and quality. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of muscle strengthening exercise in postmenopausal women with OP. Methods: A literature search was conducted systematically in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE databases for human studies up to 31 March 2021. Two researchers screened the articles against predefined inclusion criteria; a third resolved discrepancies. Articles were included if they assessed the effects of muscle strengthening exercise in postmenopausal women with OP. The protocol for this systematic review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021207917) and a qualitative systematic review was carried out following the PRISMA statement. Methodological quality was evaluated through the scientific validity scales PEDro. Finally, RTCs and NRCTs risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool (Risk of Bias-ROB 2.0) and ROBINS-1, respectively. Results: A total of 16 studies (1028 subjects) that met the different eligibility criteria previously established were selected. There is evidence of good methodological quality and a low to moderate risk of bias that supports that muscle strengthening exercise alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities improves BMD (9, n = 401) in proximal femur and lumbar vertebra body, muscle strength (10, n = 558), balance (4, n = 159), functionality (7, n = 617), and quality of life (5, n = 291). Conclusions: Exercise programs focused on muscle strengthening have benefits for all variables studied in postmenopausal women with OP.
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