An Update on the Therapeutic Approach to Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

Susanna Esposito, Giulia Fior, Alessandro Mori, Silvia Osnaghi, Daniele Ghiglioni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an inflammatory disease of the ocular surface. It commonly occurs in the first decade of life, has a wide geographical distribution, and usually occurs in warm, dry areas. The pathogenesis of VKC seems to have an immune, nervous, and endocrine basis. The most common eye symptoms are itching, discharge, tearing, eye irritation, redness of the eyes, and photophobia. Although VKC generally has a good prognosis, the lack of clarity regarding the origin of the disease makes treatment a challenge for pediatricians and ophthalmologists. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnostic criteria in VKC, with a focus on its therapeutic management. The selection of a therapeutic scheme from the many available options is based on clinical features and the personal preferences of both physicians and patients. Due to the lack of uniform grading of disease severity, there is no worldwide consensus on first-line and second-line therapeutic approaches. The choice of treatment for long-term moderate to severe VKC includes topical cyclosporine or tacrolimus. Further data are needed to define the minimal effective concentration and the safety of these drugs in eye drops and to clarify the diagnosis of VKC in patients who require these drugs. Finally, while promising newly discovered drugs are expected to enter into clinical practice, further studies on their efficacy and safety are required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-355
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Drugs
Volume18
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Allergic Conjunctivitis
Therapeutics
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Safety
Photophobia
Ophthalmic Solutions
Tacrolimus
Pruritus
Cyclosporine
Physicians

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

An Update on the Therapeutic Approach to Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis. / Esposito, Susanna; Fior, Giulia; Mori, Alessandro; Osnaghi, Silvia; Ghiglioni, Daniele.

In: Pediatric Drugs, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2016, p. 347-355.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Esposito, Susanna ; Fior, Giulia ; Mori, Alessandro ; Osnaghi, Silvia ; Ghiglioni, Daniele. / An Update on the Therapeutic Approach to Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis. In: Pediatric Drugs. 2016 ; Vol. 18, No. 5. pp. 347-355.
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