Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine involved in haematopoiesis and host defence. Production of GM-CSF has been detected in tumour cells including the U87MG astrocytoma cell line. Previous studies have been focused on the regulatory role of the proximal region of the GM-CSF promoter. Our studies on the distal region of the promoter in U87MG cells identify a negative cis element (-1377/-1298) which contains a AP1-like site able to bind c-jun and c-fos transcription factors, according to the results of DNA/protein binding assays. Mutagenesis of the AP1-like site eliminates AP1 binding and the negative effect on promoter activity. Copyright (C) 1998 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
- Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
- Negative cis element
- Transcriptional regulation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology