An upstream negative regulatory element in human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor promoter is recognised by AP1 family members

Claudia Gramigni, Silvana Penco, Giovanna Bianchi-Scarrà, Roberto Ravazzolo, Cecilia Garrè

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine involved in haematopoiesis and host defence. Production of GM-CSF has been detected in tumour cells including the U87MG astrocytoma cell line. Previous studies have been focused on the regulatory role of the proximal region of the GM-CSF promoter. Our studies on the distal region of the promoter in U87MG cells identify a negative cis element (-1377/-1298) which contains a AP1-like site able to bind c-jun and c-fos transcription factors, according to the results of DNA/protein binding assays. Mutagenesis of the AP1-like site eliminates AP1 binding and the negative effect on promoter activity. Copyright (C) 1998 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-124
Number of pages6
JournalFEBS Letters
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Nov 27 1998



  • AP1
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
  • Negative cis element
  • Transcriptional regulation
  • U87MG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Biophysics
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this