Anakinra therapy for non-cancer inflammatory diseases

G Cavalli, CA Dinarello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine: two distinct ligands (IL-1α and IL-1β) bind the IL-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1) and induce a myriad of secondary inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandins, cytokines, and chemokines. IL-1α is constitutively present in endothelial and epithelial cells, whereas IL-1β is inducible in myeloid cells and released following cleavage by caspase-1. Over the past 30 years, IL-1-mediated inflammation has been established in a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from rare autoinflammatory diseases to common conditions such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. Blocking IL-1 entered the clinical arena with anakinra, the recombinant form of the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra); IL-1Ra prevents the binding of IL-1α as well as IL-1β to IL-1R1. Quenching IL-1-mediated inflammation prevents the detrimental consequences of tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Although anakinra is presently approved for the treatment of RA and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, off-label use of anakinra far exceeds its approved indications. Dosing of 100 mg of anakinra subcutaneously provides clinically evident benefits within days and for some diseases, anakinra has been used daily for over 12 years. Compared to other biologics, anakinra has an unparalleled record of safety: opportunistic infections, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are rare even in populations at risk for reactivation of latent infections. Because of this excellent safety profile and relative short duration of action, anakinra can also be used as a diagnostic tool for undefined diseases mediated by IL-1. Although anakinra is presently in clinical trials to treat cancer, this review focuses on anakinra treatment of acute as well as chronic inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2018 Cavalli and Dinarello.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1157
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
Interleukin-1
Therapeutics
Interleukin-1 Receptors
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Interleukin-1 Type I Receptors
Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes
Cytokines
Off-Label Use
Inflammation
Safety
Caspase 1
Gout
Opportunistic Infections
Myeloid Cells
Rare Diseases
Biological Products
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Chemokines
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Cite this

Anakinra therapy for non-cancer inflammatory diseases. / Cavalli, G; Dinarello, CA.

In: Frontiers in Pharmacology, Vol. 9, 1157, 2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{856c6d3b84d84b5bbcd3f2d9b868fd25,
title = "Anakinra therapy for non-cancer inflammatory diseases",
abstract = "Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine: two distinct ligands (IL-1α and IL-1β) bind the IL-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1) and induce a myriad of secondary inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandins, cytokines, and chemokines. IL-1α is constitutively present in endothelial and epithelial cells, whereas IL-1β is inducible in myeloid cells and released following cleavage by caspase-1. Over the past 30 years, IL-1-mediated inflammation has been established in a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from rare autoinflammatory diseases to common conditions such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. Blocking IL-1 entered the clinical arena with anakinra, the recombinant form of the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra); IL-1Ra prevents the binding of IL-1α as well as IL-1β to IL-1R1. Quenching IL-1-mediated inflammation prevents the detrimental consequences of tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Although anakinra is presently approved for the treatment of RA and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, off-label use of anakinra far exceeds its approved indications. Dosing of 100 mg of anakinra subcutaneously provides clinically evident benefits within days and for some diseases, anakinra has been used daily for over 12 years. Compared to other biologics, anakinra has an unparalleled record of safety: opportunistic infections, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are rare even in populations at risk for reactivation of latent infections. Because of this excellent safety profile and relative short duration of action, anakinra can also be used as a diagnostic tool for undefined diseases mediated by IL-1. Although anakinra is presently in clinical trials to treat cancer, this review focuses on anakinra treatment of acute as well as chronic inflammatory diseases. Copyright {\circledC} 2018 Cavalli and Dinarello.",
author = "G Cavalli and CA Dinarello",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.3389/fphar.2018.01157",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "Frontiers in Pharmacology",
issn = "1663-9812",
publisher = "Frontiers Media S.A.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Anakinra therapy for non-cancer inflammatory diseases

AU - Cavalli, G

AU - Dinarello, CA

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine: two distinct ligands (IL-1α and IL-1β) bind the IL-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1) and induce a myriad of secondary inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandins, cytokines, and chemokines. IL-1α is constitutively present in endothelial and epithelial cells, whereas IL-1β is inducible in myeloid cells and released following cleavage by caspase-1. Over the past 30 years, IL-1-mediated inflammation has been established in a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from rare autoinflammatory diseases to common conditions such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. Blocking IL-1 entered the clinical arena with anakinra, the recombinant form of the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra); IL-1Ra prevents the binding of IL-1α as well as IL-1β to IL-1R1. Quenching IL-1-mediated inflammation prevents the detrimental consequences of tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Although anakinra is presently approved for the treatment of RA and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, off-label use of anakinra far exceeds its approved indications. Dosing of 100 mg of anakinra subcutaneously provides clinically evident benefits within days and for some diseases, anakinra has been used daily for over 12 years. Compared to other biologics, anakinra has an unparalleled record of safety: opportunistic infections, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are rare even in populations at risk for reactivation of latent infections. Because of this excellent safety profile and relative short duration of action, anakinra can also be used as a diagnostic tool for undefined diseases mediated by IL-1. Although anakinra is presently in clinical trials to treat cancer, this review focuses on anakinra treatment of acute as well as chronic inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2018 Cavalli and Dinarello.

AB - Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine: two distinct ligands (IL-1α and IL-1β) bind the IL-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1) and induce a myriad of secondary inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandins, cytokines, and chemokines. IL-1α is constitutively present in endothelial and epithelial cells, whereas IL-1β is inducible in myeloid cells and released following cleavage by caspase-1. Over the past 30 years, IL-1-mediated inflammation has been established in a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from rare autoinflammatory diseases to common conditions such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. Blocking IL-1 entered the clinical arena with anakinra, the recombinant form of the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra); IL-1Ra prevents the binding of IL-1α as well as IL-1β to IL-1R1. Quenching IL-1-mediated inflammation prevents the detrimental consequences of tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Although anakinra is presently approved for the treatment of RA and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, off-label use of anakinra far exceeds its approved indications. Dosing of 100 mg of anakinra subcutaneously provides clinically evident benefits within days and for some diseases, anakinra has been used daily for over 12 years. Compared to other biologics, anakinra has an unparalleled record of safety: opportunistic infections, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are rare even in populations at risk for reactivation of latent infections. Because of this excellent safety profile and relative short duration of action, anakinra can also be used as a diagnostic tool for undefined diseases mediated by IL-1. Although anakinra is presently in clinical trials to treat cancer, this review focuses on anakinra treatment of acute as well as chronic inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2018 Cavalli and Dinarello.

U2 - 10.3389/fphar.2018.01157

DO - 10.3389/fphar.2018.01157

M3 - Article

VL - 9

JO - Frontiers in Pharmacology

JF - Frontiers in Pharmacology

SN - 1663-9812

M1 - 1157

ER -