Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by JC virus (JCV), a human polyomavirus that can lytically infect and destroy the oligodendrocites in immunosuppressed individuals. After the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for AIDS treatment, a PML-like leukoencephalopathy, known as non-determined leukoencephalopathy (NDLE), has also been observed. Since a number of host genetic factors have been identified as having an impact on susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and in the progression to AIDS and death, in this work we analysed the pattern of distribution of different chemokine and chemokine receptor polymorphisms that seem to be involved in HIV+ neurological diseases. The CCR5, RANTES, CCR2 and SDF1 genes were molecularly analysed in 84 HIV+ HAART treated subjects: 55 without neurological disorders (HIV+), 12 HIV+ NDLE and 17 HIV+ PML patients. The RANTES -403 G/A polymorphism was significantly associated with NDLE. These data suggest that mutation of the RANTES allele can predispose to the induction of demyelination similarly to what has been observed in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and may suggest a possible explanation for the development of leukoencephalopathy without detection of JCV.
- Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
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