Analytical methods to investigate glutathione and related compounds in biological and pathological processes

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Abstract

Reduced glutathione (GSH, γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine) is a fundamental low-molecular mass antioxidant that serves several biological functions. Upon enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation, GSH forms glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and, under particular conditions, may generate other oxidative products. The determination of GSH, its precursors, and metabolites in several bio-matrices is a useful tool in studying oxidative stress. Many separative and non-separative methods have been developed and improved for the assay of GSH and related compounds. At present, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis are the most used separative techniques to determine GSH and congeners. The review will deal with analytical methods developed over the last few years for the determination of GSH and related compounds, and with the procedures performed in sample pre-treatment in order to minimize analytical errors. Since GSH, GSSG, and related compounds lack of strong chromophores or fluorophores, it is advantageous, in many assays, to derivatize the compounds in order to improve the detection limit with UV-Vis and to allow fluorescence, thus the most commonly used labeling agents are also described.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)181-206
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume781
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 5 2002

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Biological Phenomena
Glutathione Disulfide
Pathologic Processes
Glutathione
cysteinylglycine
Assays
Capillary electrophoresis
Oxidative stress
Fluorophores
Capillary Electrophoresis
High performance liquid chromatography
Molecular mass
Chromophores
Metabolites
Labeling
Limit of Detection
Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants
Fluorescence
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

Keywords

  • Glutathione
  • Reviews

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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abstract = "Reduced glutathione (GSH, γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine) is a fundamental low-molecular mass antioxidant that serves several biological functions. Upon enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation, GSH forms glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and, under particular conditions, may generate other oxidative products. The determination of GSH, its precursors, and metabolites in several bio-matrices is a useful tool in studying oxidative stress. Many separative and non-separative methods have been developed and improved for the assay of GSH and related compounds. At present, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis are the most used separative techniques to determine GSH and congeners. The review will deal with analytical methods developed over the last few years for the determination of GSH and related compounds, and with the procedures performed in sample pre-treatment in order to minimize analytical errors. Since GSH, GSSG, and related compounds lack of strong chromophores or fluorophores, it is advantageous, in many assays, to derivatize the compounds in order to improve the detection limit with UV-Vis and to allow fluorescence, thus the most commonly used labeling agents are also described.",
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N2 - Reduced glutathione (GSH, γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine) is a fundamental low-molecular mass antioxidant that serves several biological functions. Upon enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation, GSH forms glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and, under particular conditions, may generate other oxidative products. The determination of GSH, its precursors, and metabolites in several bio-matrices is a useful tool in studying oxidative stress. Many separative and non-separative methods have been developed and improved for the assay of GSH and related compounds. At present, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis are the most used separative techniques to determine GSH and congeners. The review will deal with analytical methods developed over the last few years for the determination of GSH and related compounds, and with the procedures performed in sample pre-treatment in order to minimize analytical errors. Since GSH, GSSG, and related compounds lack of strong chromophores or fluorophores, it is advantageous, in many assays, to derivatize the compounds in order to improve the detection limit with UV-Vis and to allow fluorescence, thus the most commonly used labeling agents are also described.

AB - Reduced glutathione (GSH, γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine) is a fundamental low-molecular mass antioxidant that serves several biological functions. Upon enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation, GSH forms glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and, under particular conditions, may generate other oxidative products. The determination of GSH, its precursors, and metabolites in several bio-matrices is a useful tool in studying oxidative stress. Many separative and non-separative methods have been developed and improved for the assay of GSH and related compounds. At present, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis are the most used separative techniques to determine GSH and congeners. The review will deal with analytical methods developed over the last few years for the determination of GSH and related compounds, and with the procedures performed in sample pre-treatment in order to minimize analytical errors. Since GSH, GSSG, and related compounds lack of strong chromophores or fluorophores, it is advantageous, in many assays, to derivatize the compounds in order to improve the detection limit with UV-Vis and to allow fluorescence, thus the most commonly used labeling agents are also described.

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