Anatomical relationships between the V2 segment of the vertebral artery and the cervical nerve roots

Sergio Paolini, Giuseppe Lanzino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Object. During surgical procedures focused on the cervical nerve roots, the surgeon works in proximity to the V2 segment of the vertebral artery (VA). Depending on the specific surgical approach, it may be necessary to identify, expose, or mobilize the artery. In most cases, the artery may be left undisturbed. To reduce the risk of iatrogenic injury to the V2 segment during anterior and anterolateral approaches to the cervical spine, the authors analyzed the relationship between the V2 segment and the proximal segment of the C3-6 nerve roots. Methods. Six cadaveric cervical spines (12 sides) were fixed with formalin, injected with red and blue latex, and investigated intraoperatively using different magnifications (X 3-40). The VA rested on the anteromedial surface of the cervical nerve roots at the level of each intertransverse space. The exiting nerve roots intersected the VA at a distance ranging from 4.5 to 8.1 mm (mean 6.3 ± 1.06 mm) from the dural sac. The distance was slightly shorter at cephalad levels, suggesting that the artery is more posteriorly and medially situated at those levels. Arterial pedicles anchored the VA to the cervical nerve roots at various levels. These arteries gave rise to purely radicular, ligamentous, and medullary branches without a predictable pattern. After reaching the nerve roots on their lower margin, the nonligamentous branches pierced the radicular dural sheath within the neural foramen at a distance of 2 to 4 mm from the VA. Conclusions. Proximal-to-distal dissection of a cervical nerve root may proceed with relative safety for at least 4 mm. The V2 segment of the VA gives rise to at least one radicular arterial pedicle between C-4 and C-6. These trunks give rise to purely radicular, ligamentous, and medullary branches in an unpredictable pattern.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)440-442
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery: Spine
Volume5
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2006

Fingerprint

Vertebral Artery
Arteries
Spine
Latex
Formaldehyde
Dissection
Safety
Wounds and Injuries

Keywords

  • Cervical spine
  • Spinal nerve root
  • Spinal surgery
  • Vertebral artery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery
  • Neurology

Cite this

Anatomical relationships between the V2 segment of the vertebral artery and the cervical nerve roots. / Paolini, Sergio; Lanzino, Giuseppe.

In: Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, Vol. 5, No. 5, 11.2006, p. 440-442.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c127f96d4a0c4937bcba35b856b324bd,
title = "Anatomical relationships between the V2 segment of the vertebral artery and the cervical nerve roots",
abstract = "Object. During surgical procedures focused on the cervical nerve roots, the surgeon works in proximity to the V2 segment of the vertebral artery (VA). Depending on the specific surgical approach, it may be necessary to identify, expose, or mobilize the artery. In most cases, the artery may be left undisturbed. To reduce the risk of iatrogenic injury to the V2 segment during anterior and anterolateral approaches to the cervical spine, the authors analyzed the relationship between the V2 segment and the proximal segment of the C3-6 nerve roots. Methods. Six cadaveric cervical spines (12 sides) were fixed with formalin, injected with red and blue latex, and investigated intraoperatively using different magnifications (X 3-40). The VA rested on the anteromedial surface of the cervical nerve roots at the level of each intertransverse space. The exiting nerve roots intersected the VA at a distance ranging from 4.5 to 8.1 mm (mean 6.3 ± 1.06 mm) from the dural sac. The distance was slightly shorter at cephalad levels, suggesting that the artery is more posteriorly and medially situated at those levels. Arterial pedicles anchored the VA to the cervical nerve roots at various levels. These arteries gave rise to purely radicular, ligamentous, and medullary branches without a predictable pattern. After reaching the nerve roots on their lower margin, the nonligamentous branches pierced the radicular dural sheath within the neural foramen at a distance of 2 to 4 mm from the VA. Conclusions. Proximal-to-distal dissection of a cervical nerve root may proceed with relative safety for at least 4 mm. The V2 segment of the VA gives rise to at least one radicular arterial pedicle between C-4 and C-6. These trunks give rise to purely radicular, ligamentous, and medullary branches in an unpredictable pattern.",
keywords = "Cervical spine, Spinal nerve root, Spinal surgery, Vertebral artery",
author = "Sergio Paolini and Giuseppe Lanzino",
year = "2006",
month = "11",
doi = "10.3171/spi.2006.5.5.440",
language = "English",
volume = "5",
pages = "440--442",
journal = "Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine",
issn = "1547-5654",
publisher = "American Association of Neurological Surgeons",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Anatomical relationships between the V2 segment of the vertebral artery and the cervical nerve roots

AU - Paolini, Sergio

AU - Lanzino, Giuseppe

PY - 2006/11

Y1 - 2006/11

N2 - Object. During surgical procedures focused on the cervical nerve roots, the surgeon works in proximity to the V2 segment of the vertebral artery (VA). Depending on the specific surgical approach, it may be necessary to identify, expose, or mobilize the artery. In most cases, the artery may be left undisturbed. To reduce the risk of iatrogenic injury to the V2 segment during anterior and anterolateral approaches to the cervical spine, the authors analyzed the relationship between the V2 segment and the proximal segment of the C3-6 nerve roots. Methods. Six cadaveric cervical spines (12 sides) were fixed with formalin, injected with red and blue latex, and investigated intraoperatively using different magnifications (X 3-40). The VA rested on the anteromedial surface of the cervical nerve roots at the level of each intertransverse space. The exiting nerve roots intersected the VA at a distance ranging from 4.5 to 8.1 mm (mean 6.3 ± 1.06 mm) from the dural sac. The distance was slightly shorter at cephalad levels, suggesting that the artery is more posteriorly and medially situated at those levels. Arterial pedicles anchored the VA to the cervical nerve roots at various levels. These arteries gave rise to purely radicular, ligamentous, and medullary branches without a predictable pattern. After reaching the nerve roots on their lower margin, the nonligamentous branches pierced the radicular dural sheath within the neural foramen at a distance of 2 to 4 mm from the VA. Conclusions. Proximal-to-distal dissection of a cervical nerve root may proceed with relative safety for at least 4 mm. The V2 segment of the VA gives rise to at least one radicular arterial pedicle between C-4 and C-6. These trunks give rise to purely radicular, ligamentous, and medullary branches in an unpredictable pattern.

AB - Object. During surgical procedures focused on the cervical nerve roots, the surgeon works in proximity to the V2 segment of the vertebral artery (VA). Depending on the specific surgical approach, it may be necessary to identify, expose, or mobilize the artery. In most cases, the artery may be left undisturbed. To reduce the risk of iatrogenic injury to the V2 segment during anterior and anterolateral approaches to the cervical spine, the authors analyzed the relationship between the V2 segment and the proximal segment of the C3-6 nerve roots. Methods. Six cadaveric cervical spines (12 sides) were fixed with formalin, injected with red and blue latex, and investigated intraoperatively using different magnifications (X 3-40). The VA rested on the anteromedial surface of the cervical nerve roots at the level of each intertransverse space. The exiting nerve roots intersected the VA at a distance ranging from 4.5 to 8.1 mm (mean 6.3 ± 1.06 mm) from the dural sac. The distance was slightly shorter at cephalad levels, suggesting that the artery is more posteriorly and medially situated at those levels. Arterial pedicles anchored the VA to the cervical nerve roots at various levels. These arteries gave rise to purely radicular, ligamentous, and medullary branches without a predictable pattern. After reaching the nerve roots on their lower margin, the nonligamentous branches pierced the radicular dural sheath within the neural foramen at a distance of 2 to 4 mm from the VA. Conclusions. Proximal-to-distal dissection of a cervical nerve root may proceed with relative safety for at least 4 mm. The V2 segment of the VA gives rise to at least one radicular arterial pedicle between C-4 and C-6. These trunks give rise to purely radicular, ligamentous, and medullary branches in an unpredictable pattern.

KW - Cervical spine

KW - Spinal nerve root

KW - Spinal surgery

KW - Vertebral artery

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34548224102&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34548224102&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3171/spi.2006.5.5.440

DO - 10.3171/spi.2006.5.5.440

M3 - Article

C2 - 17120894

AN - SCOPUS:34548224102

VL - 5

SP - 440

EP - 442

JO - Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine

JF - Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine

SN - 1547-5654

IS - 5

ER -