Anatomy of the knee and suitable prostheses

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

The knee joint can be divided into two different joints, the patello-femoral joint and the tibio-femoral joint. The most important ligaments of the knee are the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, the internal and external collateral ligaments and the patellar tendon. The external and internal menisci are two fibrocartilaginous disks that improve the articular congruity between the femur and the tibia. The main movement of the knee is flexion and extension, although a little degree of rotation is allowed. The goal of total knee replacement is pain relief and restoration of knee function. Modern total knee arthroplasty consists of a femoral component, a tibial component, a tibial platform/insert and a patellar component. Both femoral and tibial components are generally made of cobalt-chromium alloys, whereas the tibial insert and the patellar component are made of polyethylene. Component fixation to bone is usually achieved using bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate). Recent trends toward minimally invasive surgery and tissue-sparing procedures have led to the idea of replacing only one damaged compartment, in so-called unicompartimental knee replacement. The introduction of computer-aided systems such as surgical navigation and the use of oxidized zirconium or ceramic femoral components are the more recent developments.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWear of Orthopaedic Implants and Artificial Joints
PublisherElsevier Ltd.
Pages115-132
Number of pages18
ISBN (Print)9780857091284
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012

Keywords

  • Femur
  • Knee anatomy
  • Knee prostheses
  • Meniscus
  • Tibia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

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