Androgen receptor activity is affected by both nuclear matrix localization and the phosphorylation status of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in anti-androgen-treated LNCaP cells

Paola Barboro, Luana Borzì, Erica Repaci, Nicoletta Ferrari, Cecilia Balbi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and anti-androgen therapy is a standard treatment. Unfortunately, after a few years, the majority of patients progress, developing androgen-independent PCa. AR-driven gene transcription recruits a large number of co-activator/co-repressor complexes; among these, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) directly interacts with and regulates the AR translational apparatus. Here we examined AR and hnRNP K expression in response to the treatment of LNCaP cells with anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CPA) or bicalutamide (BIC). AR and hnRNP K modulation and compartmentalization were studied by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Phosphate-affinity gel electrophoresis was employed to examine how anti-androgens modified hnRNP K phosphorylation. 10-6 M CPA significantly stimulated LNCaP proliferation, whereas for 10-4 M CPA or 10-5 M BIC an antagonistic effect was observed. After anti-androgen treatment, AR expression was remarkably down-regulated within both the cytoplasm and the nucleus; however, when CPA had an agonist activity, the AR associated with the nuclear matrix (NM) increased approximately 2.5 times. This increase was synchronous with a higher PSA expression, indicating that the NM-associated AR represents the active complex. After BIC treatment, hnRNP K expression was significantly lower in the NM, the protein was hypophosphorylated and the co-localization of AR and hnRNP K decreased. In contrast, CPA as an agonist caused hnRNP K hyperphosphorylation and an increase in the co-localization of two proteins. These findings demonstrate that, in vitro, there is a strong relationship between NM-associated AR and both cell viability and PSA levels, indicating that AR transcriptional activity is critically dependent on its subnuclear localization. Moreover, the agonistic/antagonistic activity of anti-androgens is associated with modifications in hnRNP K phosphorylation, indicating an involvement of this protein in the AR transcriptional activity and likely in the onset of the androgen-independent phenotype.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere79212
JournalPLoS One
Volume8
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 13 2013

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Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K
nuclear matrix
Nuclear Matrix
ribonucleoproteins
Phosphorylation
Androgen Receptors
androgens
Androgens
phosphorylation
Cyproterone Acetate
cells
acetates
prostatic neoplasms
Prostatic Neoplasms
agonists
androgen receptors
Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins
Therapeutics
Co-Repressor Proteins
proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Androgen receptor activity is affected by both nuclear matrix localization and the phosphorylation status of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in anti-androgen-treated LNCaP cells",
abstract = "The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and anti-androgen therapy is a standard treatment. Unfortunately, after a few years, the majority of patients progress, developing androgen-independent PCa. AR-driven gene transcription recruits a large number of co-activator/co-repressor complexes; among these, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) directly interacts with and regulates the AR translational apparatus. Here we examined AR and hnRNP K expression in response to the treatment of LNCaP cells with anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CPA) or bicalutamide (BIC). AR and hnRNP K modulation and compartmentalization were studied by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Phosphate-affinity gel electrophoresis was employed to examine how anti-androgens modified hnRNP K phosphorylation. 10-6 M CPA significantly stimulated LNCaP proliferation, whereas for 10-4 M CPA or 10-5 M BIC an antagonistic effect was observed. After anti-androgen treatment, AR expression was remarkably down-regulated within both the cytoplasm and the nucleus; however, when CPA had an agonist activity, the AR associated with the nuclear matrix (NM) increased approximately 2.5 times. This increase was synchronous with a higher PSA expression, indicating that the NM-associated AR represents the active complex. After BIC treatment, hnRNP K expression was significantly lower in the NM, the protein was hypophosphorylated and the co-localization of AR and hnRNP K decreased. In contrast, CPA as an agonist caused hnRNP K hyperphosphorylation and an increase in the co-localization of two proteins. These findings demonstrate that, in vitro, there is a strong relationship between NM-associated AR and both cell viability and PSA levels, indicating that AR transcriptional activity is critically dependent on its subnuclear localization. Moreover, the agonistic/antagonistic activity of anti-androgens is associated with modifications in hnRNP K phosphorylation, indicating an involvement of this protein in the AR transcriptional activity and likely in the onset of the androgen-independent phenotype.",
author = "Paola Barboro and Luana Borz{\`i} and Erica Repaci and Nicoletta Ferrari and Cecilia Balbi",
year = "2013",
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T1 - Androgen receptor activity is affected by both nuclear matrix localization and the phosphorylation status of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in anti-androgen-treated LNCaP cells

AU - Barboro, Paola

AU - Borzì, Luana

AU - Repaci, Erica

AU - Ferrari, Nicoletta

AU - Balbi, Cecilia

PY - 2013/11/13

Y1 - 2013/11/13

N2 - The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and anti-androgen therapy is a standard treatment. Unfortunately, after a few years, the majority of patients progress, developing androgen-independent PCa. AR-driven gene transcription recruits a large number of co-activator/co-repressor complexes; among these, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) directly interacts with and regulates the AR translational apparatus. Here we examined AR and hnRNP K expression in response to the treatment of LNCaP cells with anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CPA) or bicalutamide (BIC). AR and hnRNP K modulation and compartmentalization were studied by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Phosphate-affinity gel electrophoresis was employed to examine how anti-androgens modified hnRNP K phosphorylation. 10-6 M CPA significantly stimulated LNCaP proliferation, whereas for 10-4 M CPA or 10-5 M BIC an antagonistic effect was observed. After anti-androgen treatment, AR expression was remarkably down-regulated within both the cytoplasm and the nucleus; however, when CPA had an agonist activity, the AR associated with the nuclear matrix (NM) increased approximately 2.5 times. This increase was synchronous with a higher PSA expression, indicating that the NM-associated AR represents the active complex. After BIC treatment, hnRNP K expression was significantly lower in the NM, the protein was hypophosphorylated and the co-localization of AR and hnRNP K decreased. In contrast, CPA as an agonist caused hnRNP K hyperphosphorylation and an increase in the co-localization of two proteins. These findings demonstrate that, in vitro, there is a strong relationship between NM-associated AR and both cell viability and PSA levels, indicating that AR transcriptional activity is critically dependent on its subnuclear localization. Moreover, the agonistic/antagonistic activity of anti-androgens is associated with modifications in hnRNP K phosphorylation, indicating an involvement of this protein in the AR transcriptional activity and likely in the onset of the androgen-independent phenotype.

AB - The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and anti-androgen therapy is a standard treatment. Unfortunately, after a few years, the majority of patients progress, developing androgen-independent PCa. AR-driven gene transcription recruits a large number of co-activator/co-repressor complexes; among these, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) directly interacts with and regulates the AR translational apparatus. Here we examined AR and hnRNP K expression in response to the treatment of LNCaP cells with anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CPA) or bicalutamide (BIC). AR and hnRNP K modulation and compartmentalization were studied by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Phosphate-affinity gel electrophoresis was employed to examine how anti-androgens modified hnRNP K phosphorylation. 10-6 M CPA significantly stimulated LNCaP proliferation, whereas for 10-4 M CPA or 10-5 M BIC an antagonistic effect was observed. After anti-androgen treatment, AR expression was remarkably down-regulated within both the cytoplasm and the nucleus; however, when CPA had an agonist activity, the AR associated with the nuclear matrix (NM) increased approximately 2.5 times. This increase was synchronous with a higher PSA expression, indicating that the NM-associated AR represents the active complex. After BIC treatment, hnRNP K expression was significantly lower in the NM, the protein was hypophosphorylated and the co-localization of AR and hnRNP K decreased. In contrast, CPA as an agonist caused hnRNP K hyperphosphorylation and an increase in the co-localization of two proteins. These findings demonstrate that, in vitro, there is a strong relationship between NM-associated AR and both cell viability and PSA levels, indicating that AR transcriptional activity is critically dependent on its subnuclear localization. Moreover, the agonistic/antagonistic activity of anti-androgens is associated with modifications in hnRNP K phosphorylation, indicating an involvement of this protein in the AR transcriptional activity and likely in the onset of the androgen-independent phenotype.

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