The Androgen Receptor (AR) pathway is involved in the development of skeletal muscle but the molecular basis of androgen-related myogenic enhancement is still unclear. We have investigated AR expression and localization during myoblasts-myotubes differentiation in skeletal muscle cell line C2C12. AR expression increases during proliferation and commitment phase and its levels remain elevated in myotubes. In proliferating and committed cells in the absence of testosterone, AR protein localizes in the nuclei whereas it is almost totally localized in the cytoplasm in myotubes. Low testosterone doses shift the receptor in the nuclei without increasing the amount of total protein. High doses of T induce a significant increase of AR expression during proliferation and differentiation. Little information is available on AR targets that drive the myogenic process. In our study, testosterone induces myogenin, myosin heavy chains (MyHC) and GRIP-1 expression, suggesting that AR and its coregulatory proteins are pivotal factors in skeletal muscle differentiation.
- Androgen receptor
- Skeletal muscle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism