Chronic heart failure is a substantial public health problem. Anemia is an important comorbidity frequently observed in patients with the disease and, in heart failure, anemia has only recently started to attract systematic epidemiological and therapeutical research endeavor. This article describes the many aspects of anemia in chronic heart failure, starting with the ongoing discussion of how to define anemia, which has important consequences for the estimation of its prevalence and incidence. Further, we discuss prognostic implications of anemia in patients with chronic or acute heart failure, the etiology of anemia in heart failure and treatment possibilities. Such therapeutic avenues embrace intravenous iron preparations and subcutaneous administration of erythropoietin and its derivatives, all of which have been extensively studied over the last several years. Finally, this article describes the potential costs incurred by treating anemic patients with heart failure.
- heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Molecular Medicine