Angiogenesis is a constant hallmark of multiple myeloma progression and has prognostic potential. Multiple myeloma cells interact with surrounding host cells and extracellular matrix, this crosstalk affecting the most important aspects of the malignant phenotype, both at primary and secondary tumor sites. The pathophysiology of multiple myeloma-induced angiogenesis involves both direct production of angiogenic cytokines by plasma cells and their induction within the bone marrow microenvironment cells. A direct involvement of bone marrow macrophages and mast cells in vasculogenic mimicry has been demonstrated, thus contributing together with circulating endothelial cells and endothelial precursor cells to the multiple myeloma neovascularization. The role of host cells or the niche microenvironment and extracellular matrix represents an intense area of research, finalized at a better understanding of the pathophysiological modifications of the complete tumor entity, i.e. malignant cells and microenvironment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy