There is much evidence that rheumatoid arthritis is closely linked to angiogenesis. Important angiogenic mediators have been demonstrated in synovium and tenosynovium of rheumatoid joints. VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), expressed in response to soluble mediators such as cytokines and growth factors and its receptors are the best characterized system in the angiogenesis regulation of rheumatoid joints. Moreover, other angiogenic mediators such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-15, IL-18, angiogenin, platelet activating factor (PAF), angiopoietin, soluble adhesion molecules, endothelial mediator (endoglin) play an important role in angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis. On the other hand, endostatin, thrombospondin-1 and -2 are angiogenic inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis. The persistence of inflammation in rheumatoid joints is a consequence of an imbalance between these inducers and inhibitors of angiogenesis.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Histology and Histopathology|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2006|
- Rheumatoid arthritis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cell Biology