Objectives. This study was performed to determine predictors of in- stent restenosis from a high volume, single-center practice. Background. Intracoronary stents have been shown to reduce the restenosis rate as compared with balloon angioplasty, but in-stent restenosis continues to be an important clinical problem. Methods. Between April 1993 and March 1997, 1,706 patients with 2,343 lesions were treated with a variety of intracoronary stents. The majority of stents were placed with high pressure balloon inflations and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance. Angiographic follow- up was obtained in 1,173 patients with 1,633 lesions (70%). Clinical, angiographic and IVUS variables were prospectively recorded and analyzed by univariate and multivariate models for the ability to predict the occurrence of in-stent restenosis defined as a diameter stenosis ≥50%. Results. In- stent restenosis was angiographically documented in 282 patients with 409 lesions (25%). The restenosis group had a significantly longer total stent length, smaller reference lumen diameter, smaller final minimal lumen diameter (MLD) by angiography and smaller stent lumen cross-sectional area (CSA) by IVUS. In lesions where IVUS guidance was used, the restenosis rate was 24% as compared with 29% if IVUS was not used (p <0.05). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, longer total stent length, smaller reference lumen diameter and smaller final MLD were strong predictors of in-stent restenosis. In lesions with IVUS guidance, IVUS stent lumen CSA was a better independent predictor than the angiographic measurements. Conclusions. Achieving an optimal stent lumen CSA by using IVUS guidance during the procedure and minimizing the total stent length may reduce in-stent restenosis.
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