Angiopoietins, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors and Secretory Phospholipase A2 in Ischemic and Non-Ischemic Heart Failure

Gilda Varricchi, Stefania Loffredo, Leonardo Bencivenga, Anne Lise Ferrara, Giuseppina Gambino, Nicola Ferrara, Amato de Paulis, Gianni Marone, Giuseppe Rengo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Heart failure (HF) is a growing public health burden, with high prevalence and mortality rates. In contrast to ischemic heart failure (IHF), the diagnosis of non-ischemic heart failure (NIHF) is established in the absence of coronary artery disease. Angiopoietins (ANGPTs), vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are proinflammatory mediators and key regulators of endothelial cells. In the present manuscript, we analyze the plasma concentrations of angiogenic (ANGPT1, ANGPT2, VEGF-A) and lymphangiogenic (VEGF-C, VEGF-D) factors and the plasma activity of sPLA2 in patients with IHF and NIHF compared to healthy controls. The concentrations of ANGPT1, ANGPT2 and their ratio significantly differed between HF patients and healthy controls. Similarly, plasma levels of VEGF-D and sPLA2 activity were higher in HF as compared to controls. Concentrations of ANGPT2 and the ANGPT2/ANGPT1 ratio (an index of vascular permeability) were increased in NIHF patients. VEGF-A and VEGF-C concentrations did not differ among the three examined groups. Interestingly, VEGF-D was selectively increased in IFH patients compared to controls. Plasma activity of sPLA2 was increased in IHF and NIHF patients compared to controls. Our results indicate that several regulators of vascular permeability and smoldering inflammation are specifically altered in IHF and NIHF patients. Studies involving larger cohorts of these patients will be necessary to demonstrate the clinical implications of our findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1928
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 19 2020


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