Animal testing is still the best way to find new treatments for patients

Silvio Garattini, Giuliano Grignaschi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Experimental research proceeds by hypotheses formulated on the basis of previous or new knowledge and then tested. If they are accepted, they serve as the basis for further hypotheses, and if they are rejected new hypotheses can be developed. In other words, when we are at the frontiers of knowledge the path is forged by trial and error. When a trial shows a hypothesis is wrong, this is a step toward making fewer errors.This process also applies to drug development. There is no magic formula at present to predict - at the pre-clinical level - the therapeutic value of a drug for people with a disease. However, pre-clinical studies are needed in order to formulate hypotheses that justify clinical trials. Without these preliminary studies . in vitro and . in vivo in selected animal species it would be unethical to test still unproven chemicals in humans.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Internal Medicine
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Nov 10 2016


  • Animal testing
  • Experimental research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Animal testing is still the best way to find new treatments for patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this