Ankle and foot: Foot abnormalities and pathologies

Sandro Giannini, Roberto E. Buda, Alessandro Parma, Laura Ramponi, Antonio Mazzotti, Francesca Vannini

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Children and adolescents start sports at earlier ages and with higher intensity. In the USA, more than half of people between 8 and 16years old are engaged in some kind of sport during the school years. Foot and ankle abnormalities are common in children under 10years old and may result in impairment while starting a sports activity. Pathologies that can affect young athlete include flatfoot, tarsal coalition, cavus foot, juvenile hallux valgus, ankle impingement, os trigonum, Haglund’s disease, and osteochondroses. Patients may be asymptomatic and pathologies are sometimes incidental findings but young athletes who complain pain, discomfort during activity and functional limitation. Depending on the disease, the degree and causes of deformities, the clinical aspects, and the age of patients, treatment may be conservative or surgical. The goal of treatments is reducing pain, restoring a correct alignment, and restarting the sport activities.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPediatric and Adolescent Sports Traumatology
PublisherSpringer-Verlag Milan
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)9788847054127, 9788847054110
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2014


  • Ankle impingement
  • Cavus foot
  • Flatfoot
  • Juvenile hallux valgus
  • Osteochondrosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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