Antenatal risk factors for germinal matrix hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants

Arsenio Spinillo, Alessandra Ometto, Roberto Bottino, Gaia Piazzi, Angela Iasci, Giorgio Rondini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of antenatal risk factors on the occurrence of germinal matrix hemorrhage or intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. Study design: Antenatal factors were evaluated in 302 infants delivered between 24 and 33 completed weeks gestation. Ultrasonographic screening of intracranial hemorrhage was carried out in all the infants. The association between risk factors and neonatal intracranial hemorrhage was evaluated with both univariate and multivariate models. Results: In stepwise logistic regression analysis, birthweight was a better predictor of neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage than gestational age. Conversely, gestational age better predicted intraventricular hemorrhage than did birthweight. Risk factors for neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage were dissimilar. A history of heavy (> 10 cigarettes/day) maternal smoking on admission increased the risk of germinal matrix hemorrhage three-fold (odds ratio = 3.35; 95% C.I. 1.24-9.07). Antenatal corticosteroid use reduced the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage by 76% (odds ratio = 0.24; 95% C.I. 0.09-0.61). Among patients with spontaneous preterm delivery or premature rupture of fetal membranes, the presence of labor was a significant effect modifier of the gestational-age associated risk of germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions: Risk factors for neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage are different from those for intraventricular hemorrhage. Most antenatal factors, especially those affecting fetal maturity, could influence the progression rather than the onset of intracranial hemorrhage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-19
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1995


  • Germinal matrix hemorrhage
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage
  • Preterm delivery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Reproductive Medicine


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