Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with an all-epiphyseal "over-the-top" technique is safe and shows low rate of failure in skeletally immature athletes

Tommaso Roberti di Sarsina, Luca Macchiarola, Cecilia Signorelli, Alberto Grassi, Federico Raggi, Giulio Maria Marcheggiani Muccioli, Stefano Zaffagnini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to follow up, clinically and radiographically, skeletally immature patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with an all-epiphyseal "over-the-top" technique.

METHODS: Twenty athletes aged between 8 and 13 years were enrolled and retrospectively evaluated. The subjects underwent surgical ACL reconstruction between 2009 and 2013. The surgical technique consisted of a single-bundle all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction with an extra-articular lateral tenodesis. The mean follow-up was 54 months [34-123] after surgery. Clinically, the patients were evaluated pre- and post-operatively with Lysholm and KOOS scores; sport activity level was evaluated using the pre-injury, pre-operative and post-operative Tegner scores. Objective IKDC was calculated post-operatively. The joint laxity was evaluated by KT1000 and Rolimeter arthrometers. Panoramic AP standing radiographs of the lower limbs and lateral knee radiographs were also taken at the follow-up to evaluate limb length discrepancies (LLD) and axial malalignment. Normally distributed parameters were presented as mean ± standard deviation, while the non-normally distributed parameters were presented as median [25° percentile, 75° percentile].

RESULTS: Clinical scores showed significant (P < 0.01) improvement: Lysholm and KOOS scores improved from 40 [22; 65] and 59 [42, 73], respectively, to 100 [95; 100] and 99 [97;100] after surgery. Tegner score improved from 2 [2; 2] pre-operatively to 7 [3; 9] at follow-up (P < 0.01). At follow-up, IKDC score was A for 19 patients and one who scored B. All patients returned to sport activity and had good stability at follow-up: the KT1000 showed a median side-to-side difference of 0.0 mm [- 0.4; 1.0] for the standard force evaluation and 0.0 mm [- 1.0; 0.8] for manual-maximum test. The Rolimeter showed median side-to-site difference of 0.0 mm [- 1.0; 0.8]. Three minor leg length discrepancies and axial deviations were observed at the radiograph: one patient had 0.6 cm lengthening and 4° of varus, one had 1 cm lengthening, and one had 3° of varus (in comparison with the non-operated limb). No re-injury was observed.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the modified all-epiphyseal single-bundle "over-the-top" technique is a viable and safe option for ACL reconstruction in pediatric subjects. These results support once more that not only ACL reconstruction is a safe procedure in skeletally immature patients, but also it is highly recommended for those who want to pursue an active and sportive life.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case series, IV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Sep 12 2018

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Athletes
Sports
Extremities
Tenodesis
Joint Instability
Wounds and Injuries
Lower Extremity
Leg
Knee
Joints
Pediatrics

Keywords

  • ACL reconstruction
  • Adolescents
  • Anterior cruciate ligament
  • Growth disturbances
  • Laxity
  • Skeletally immature

Cite this

@article{ea8c8d8333a04c3a8f2d6fe0af5e2387,
title = "Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with an all-epiphyseal {"}over-the-top{"} technique is safe and shows low rate of failure in skeletally immature athletes",
abstract = "PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to follow up, clinically and radiographically, skeletally immature patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with an all-epiphyseal {"}over-the-top{"} technique.METHODS: Twenty athletes aged between 8 and 13 years were enrolled and retrospectively evaluated. The subjects underwent surgical ACL reconstruction between 2009 and 2013. The surgical technique consisted of a single-bundle all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction with an extra-articular lateral tenodesis. The mean follow-up was 54 months [34-123] after surgery. Clinically, the patients were evaluated pre- and post-operatively with Lysholm and KOOS scores; sport activity level was evaluated using the pre-injury, pre-operative and post-operative Tegner scores. Objective IKDC was calculated post-operatively. The joint laxity was evaluated by KT1000 and Rolimeter arthrometers. Panoramic AP standing radiographs of the lower limbs and lateral knee radiographs were also taken at the follow-up to evaluate limb length discrepancies (LLD) and axial malalignment. Normally distributed parameters were presented as mean ± standard deviation, while the non-normally distributed parameters were presented as median [25° percentile, 75° percentile].RESULTS: Clinical scores showed significant (P < 0.01) improvement: Lysholm and KOOS scores improved from 40 [22; 65] and 59 [42, 73], respectively, to 100 [95; 100] and 99 [97;100] after surgery. Tegner score improved from 2 [2; 2] pre-operatively to 7 [3; 9] at follow-up (P < 0.01). At follow-up, IKDC score was A for 19 patients and one who scored B. All patients returned to sport activity and had good stability at follow-up: the KT1000 showed a median side-to-side difference of 0.0 mm [- 0.4; 1.0] for the standard force evaluation and 0.0 mm [- 1.0; 0.8] for manual-maximum test. The Rolimeter showed median side-to-site difference of 0.0 mm [- 1.0; 0.8]. Three minor leg length discrepancies and axial deviations were observed at the radiograph: one patient had 0.6 cm lengthening and 4° of varus, one had 1 cm lengthening, and one had 3° of varus (in comparison with the non-operated limb). No re-injury was observed.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the modified all-epiphyseal single-bundle {"}over-the-top{"} technique is a viable and safe option for ACL reconstruction in pediatric subjects. These results support once more that not only ACL reconstruction is a safe procedure in skeletally immature patients, but also it is highly recommended for those who want to pursue an active and sportive life.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case series, IV.",
keywords = "ACL reconstruction, Adolescents, Anterior cruciate ligament, Growth disturbances, Laxity, Skeletally immature",
author = "{Roberti di Sarsina}, Tommaso and Luca Macchiarola and Cecilia Signorelli and Alberto Grassi and Federico Raggi and {Marcheggiani Muccioli}, {Giulio Maria} and Stefano Zaffagnini",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "12",
doi = "10.1007/s00167-018-5132-y",
language = "English",
pages = "1--9",
journal = "Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy",
issn = "0942-2056",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with an all-epiphyseal "over-the-top" technique is safe and shows low rate of failure in skeletally immature athletes

AU - Roberti di Sarsina, Tommaso

AU - Macchiarola, Luca

AU - Signorelli, Cecilia

AU - Grassi, Alberto

AU - Raggi, Federico

AU - Marcheggiani Muccioli, Giulio Maria

AU - Zaffagnini, Stefano

PY - 2018/9/12

Y1 - 2018/9/12

N2 - PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to follow up, clinically and radiographically, skeletally immature patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with an all-epiphyseal "over-the-top" technique.METHODS: Twenty athletes aged between 8 and 13 years were enrolled and retrospectively evaluated. The subjects underwent surgical ACL reconstruction between 2009 and 2013. The surgical technique consisted of a single-bundle all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction with an extra-articular lateral tenodesis. The mean follow-up was 54 months [34-123] after surgery. Clinically, the patients were evaluated pre- and post-operatively with Lysholm and KOOS scores; sport activity level was evaluated using the pre-injury, pre-operative and post-operative Tegner scores. Objective IKDC was calculated post-operatively. The joint laxity was evaluated by KT1000 and Rolimeter arthrometers. Panoramic AP standing radiographs of the lower limbs and lateral knee radiographs were also taken at the follow-up to evaluate limb length discrepancies (LLD) and axial malalignment. Normally distributed parameters were presented as mean ± standard deviation, while the non-normally distributed parameters were presented as median [25° percentile, 75° percentile].RESULTS: Clinical scores showed significant (P < 0.01) improvement: Lysholm and KOOS scores improved from 40 [22; 65] and 59 [42, 73], respectively, to 100 [95; 100] and 99 [97;100] after surgery. Tegner score improved from 2 [2; 2] pre-operatively to 7 [3; 9] at follow-up (P < 0.01). At follow-up, IKDC score was A for 19 patients and one who scored B. All patients returned to sport activity and had good stability at follow-up: the KT1000 showed a median side-to-side difference of 0.0 mm [- 0.4; 1.0] for the standard force evaluation and 0.0 mm [- 1.0; 0.8] for manual-maximum test. The Rolimeter showed median side-to-site difference of 0.0 mm [- 1.0; 0.8]. Three minor leg length discrepancies and axial deviations were observed at the radiograph: one patient had 0.6 cm lengthening and 4° of varus, one had 1 cm lengthening, and one had 3° of varus (in comparison with the non-operated limb). No re-injury was observed.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the modified all-epiphyseal single-bundle "over-the-top" technique is a viable and safe option for ACL reconstruction in pediatric subjects. These results support once more that not only ACL reconstruction is a safe procedure in skeletally immature patients, but also it is highly recommended for those who want to pursue an active and sportive life.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case series, IV.

AB - PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to follow up, clinically and radiographically, skeletally immature patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with an all-epiphyseal "over-the-top" technique.METHODS: Twenty athletes aged between 8 and 13 years were enrolled and retrospectively evaluated. The subjects underwent surgical ACL reconstruction between 2009 and 2013. The surgical technique consisted of a single-bundle all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction with an extra-articular lateral tenodesis. The mean follow-up was 54 months [34-123] after surgery. Clinically, the patients were evaluated pre- and post-operatively with Lysholm and KOOS scores; sport activity level was evaluated using the pre-injury, pre-operative and post-operative Tegner scores. Objective IKDC was calculated post-operatively. The joint laxity was evaluated by KT1000 and Rolimeter arthrometers. Panoramic AP standing radiographs of the lower limbs and lateral knee radiographs were also taken at the follow-up to evaluate limb length discrepancies (LLD) and axial malalignment. Normally distributed parameters were presented as mean ± standard deviation, while the non-normally distributed parameters were presented as median [25° percentile, 75° percentile].RESULTS: Clinical scores showed significant (P < 0.01) improvement: Lysholm and KOOS scores improved from 40 [22; 65] and 59 [42, 73], respectively, to 100 [95; 100] and 99 [97;100] after surgery. Tegner score improved from 2 [2; 2] pre-operatively to 7 [3; 9] at follow-up (P < 0.01). At follow-up, IKDC score was A for 19 patients and one who scored B. All patients returned to sport activity and had good stability at follow-up: the KT1000 showed a median side-to-side difference of 0.0 mm [- 0.4; 1.0] for the standard force evaluation and 0.0 mm [- 1.0; 0.8] for manual-maximum test. The Rolimeter showed median side-to-site difference of 0.0 mm [- 1.0; 0.8]. Three minor leg length discrepancies and axial deviations were observed at the radiograph: one patient had 0.6 cm lengthening and 4° of varus, one had 1 cm lengthening, and one had 3° of varus (in comparison with the non-operated limb). No re-injury was observed.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the modified all-epiphyseal single-bundle "over-the-top" technique is a viable and safe option for ACL reconstruction in pediatric subjects. These results support once more that not only ACL reconstruction is a safe procedure in skeletally immature patients, but also it is highly recommended for those who want to pursue an active and sportive life.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case series, IV.

KW - ACL reconstruction

KW - Adolescents

KW - Anterior cruciate ligament

KW - Growth disturbances

KW - Laxity

KW - Skeletally immature

U2 - 10.1007/s00167-018-5132-y

DO - 10.1007/s00167-018-5132-y

M3 - Article

C2 - 30209520

SP - 1

EP - 9

JO - Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

JF - Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

SN - 0942-2056

ER -