Anti-cancer vaccine for HPV-associated neoplasms: Focus on a therapeutic HPV vaccine based on a novel tumor antigen delivery method using endogenously engineered exosomes

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Abstract

Some human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes are universally recognized as major etiological agents not only of ano-genital tumors but also of head and neck cancers, which show increasing incidence. The evaluation of current and future therapeutic approaches against HPV-induced tumors is a global health priority, despite an effective prophylactic vaccine against 7 of the 12 genotypes involved in the etiology of tumors being currently available. In this review, we present the main anti-HPV therapeutic approaches in clinical experimentation, with a focus on a novel tumor antigen delivery method using engineered exosomes, that we recently developed. Our system allows the induction of an efficient unrestricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against the HPV16-E7 tumor-associated antigen, with the formation of endogenously engineered exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles spontaneously released by all cell types. Immunogenic exosomes are uploaded with HPV16-E7 due to the fusion with a unique exosome-anchoring protein referred to as Nef mut . Intramuscular injection of a DNA vector expressing the fusion protein generates exosomes sufficiently immunogenic to elicit a potent anti-16E7 CTL immune response. The approach is described here and the advantages over other existing methodologies are reported.

Original languageEnglish
Article number138
JournalCancers
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019

Keywords

  • Cancer immunotherapy
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
  • Exosomes
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • HPV16
  • Therapeutic vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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