Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) and its correlation with clinical and laboratory data. Methods: We analysed the clinical and serological data of 155 consecutive patients with pSS. Among these, 14 were excluded due to fulfillment of American College of Rheumatology criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). So, 141 patients (27 males and 114 females; mean age 48 years, range 39 to 60) were clinically assessed for the presence of synovitis (objective swelling of one or more joints) and extra-glandular involvement. The anti-CCP antibodies were tested using a commercially available second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) was determined by nephelometry. Results: Fourteen patients (9.9%) had moderate to high levels of anti-CCP, and 94 (66.7%) were positive for RF. Eighty-one (57.4%) showed extra-glandular involvement, and 44 (31.2%) had synovitis without any radiographic sign of erosion. There was a close correlation between the presence of anti-CCP and synovitis (P <0.001) but no association between anti-CCP and extra-glandular involvement (P = 0.77). Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between anti-CCP and an increased prevalence of synovitis (prevalence odds ratio for positive versus negative anti-CCP status 7.611, 95% confidence interval 1.475 to 74.870; P = 0.010). Conclusion: Only a minority of patients with pSS are anti-CCP-positive, which seems to be closely associated with the prevalence of synovitis. Anti-CCP positivity in patients with pSS therefore may be a predictor of future progress to RA or an expression of the inflammatory process of synovial tissue.
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