Objective: We tested the effects of chloroquine (CQ) on glycosylation of HIV particles and in combination with protease inhibitors (PIs) on HIV replication and on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1). Design: CD4+ cell lines were infected with laboratory strains and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with primary isolates for evaluation of the anti-HIV effects. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated for of P-gp and MRP1 functions. Methods: HIV replication was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HIV glycosylation was measured by metabolic labeling of viral particles with [3H] glucosamine. Synergism was tested using isobolograms. P-gp and MRP1 functions were assayed using rhodamine 123 (Rh123) and carboxyfluorescein (CF) efflux assays, respectively. Results: CQ alone inhibited HIV replication and glycosylation in a dose-dependent manner. In combination with indinavir (IDV), ritonavir, or saquinavir (SQV), CQ had a synergistic effect at concentrations found in plasma of subjects receiving malaria prophylaxis. CQ decreased the 50% effective concentration of IDV in primary isolates from Africa and restored the response to IDV or SQV in 3 PI-resistant isolates. CQ increased the block of Rh123 and CF efflux activity exerted by PIs. Conclusion: The inhibitory effects of CQ on HIV glycosylation are associated with synergistic effects in combination with PIs. The CQ/PI combination exerts combined inhibitory effects on P-gp and MRP1 function.
- Developing countries
- Multidrug resistance protein-1
- Protease inhibitors
ASJC Scopus subject areas