Anti-Hypothalamus and Anti-Pituitary Auto-antibodies in ROHHAD Syndrome

Additional Evidence Supporting an Autoimmune Etiopathogenesis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a very rare and complex pediatric syndrome characterized by altered hypothalamic thermal regulation, pain threshold, and respiratory control, hyperphagia with rapid weight gain and, often, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Its etiopathogenesis remains undetermined. We investigated the presence of alterations to target genes and hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity in a patient with -ROHHAD syndrome.

METHODS: A 3-year-old girl presenting with obesity after rapid weight gain was diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome based on clinical features and abnormal biochemical and functional testing results. Because of worsening of rapid symptoms and demonstration of oligoclonal bands on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, she was treated with plasmapheresis, methylprednisolone, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and azathioprine. Despite initial partial clinical improvement, the patient soon died of cardiorespiratory arrest. Post-mortem, whole exome sequencing, high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization array, and optimized indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis were performed on blood and CSF.

RESULTS: No putative causative genomic variants compatible with dominant or recessive inheritance nor clinically significant structural rearrangement were detected. IIF on serum and CSF demonstrated the presence of anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamus autoantibodies.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the involvement of autoimmunity in ROHHAD syndrome. However, response to immunosuppressive treatment was only transient and the patient died. Further cases are required to define the complex disease pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalHormone Research in Paediatrics
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Apr 30 2019

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Hypoventilation
Hypothalamus
Obesity
Antibodies
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Autoimmunity
Weight Gain
Oligoclonal Bands
Exome
Hyperphagia
Pain Threshold
Comparative Genomic Hybridization
Plasmapheresis
Methylprednisolone
Azathioprine
Immunosuppressive Agents
Autoantibodies
Hot Temperature
Monoclonal Antibodies

Cite this

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title = "Anti-Hypothalamus and Anti-Pituitary Auto-antibodies in ROHHAD Syndrome: Additional Evidence Supporting an Autoimmune Etiopathogenesis",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a very rare and complex pediatric syndrome characterized by altered hypothalamic thermal regulation, pain threshold, and respiratory control, hyperphagia with rapid weight gain and, often, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Its etiopathogenesis remains undetermined. We investigated the presence of alterations to target genes and hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity in a patient with -ROHHAD syndrome.METHODS: A 3-year-old girl presenting with obesity after rapid weight gain was diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome based on clinical features and abnormal biochemical and functional testing results. Because of worsening of rapid symptoms and demonstration of oligoclonal bands on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, she was treated with plasmapheresis, methylprednisolone, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and azathioprine. Despite initial partial clinical improvement, the patient soon died of cardiorespiratory arrest. Post-mortem, whole exome sequencing, high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization array, and optimized indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis were performed on blood and CSF.RESULTS: No putative causative genomic variants compatible with dominant or recessive inheritance nor clinically significant structural rearrangement were detected. IIF on serum and CSF demonstrated the presence of anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamus autoantibodies.CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the involvement of autoimmunity in ROHHAD syndrome. However, response to immunosuppressive treatment was only transient and the patient died. Further cases are required to define the complex disease pathogenesis.",
author = "Claudio Giacomozzi and Federica Guaraldi and Paola Cambiaso and Marcello Niceta and Elisabetta Verrillo and Marco Tartaglia and Renato Cutrera",
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T1 - Anti-Hypothalamus and Anti-Pituitary Auto-antibodies in ROHHAD Syndrome

T2 - Additional Evidence Supporting an Autoimmune Etiopathogenesis

AU - Giacomozzi, Claudio

AU - Guaraldi, Federica

AU - Cambiaso, Paola

AU - Niceta, Marcello

AU - Verrillo, Elisabetta

AU - Tartaglia, Marco

AU - Cutrera, Renato

N1 - © 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PY - 2019/4/30

Y1 - 2019/4/30

N2 - BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a very rare and complex pediatric syndrome characterized by altered hypothalamic thermal regulation, pain threshold, and respiratory control, hyperphagia with rapid weight gain and, often, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Its etiopathogenesis remains undetermined. We investigated the presence of alterations to target genes and hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity in a patient with -ROHHAD syndrome.METHODS: A 3-year-old girl presenting with obesity after rapid weight gain was diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome based on clinical features and abnormal biochemical and functional testing results. Because of worsening of rapid symptoms and demonstration of oligoclonal bands on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, she was treated with plasmapheresis, methylprednisolone, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and azathioprine. Despite initial partial clinical improvement, the patient soon died of cardiorespiratory arrest. Post-mortem, whole exome sequencing, high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization array, and optimized indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis were performed on blood and CSF.RESULTS: No putative causative genomic variants compatible with dominant or recessive inheritance nor clinically significant structural rearrangement were detected. IIF on serum and CSF demonstrated the presence of anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamus autoantibodies.CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the involvement of autoimmunity in ROHHAD syndrome. However, response to immunosuppressive treatment was only transient and the patient died. Further cases are required to define the complex disease pathogenesis.

AB - BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a very rare and complex pediatric syndrome characterized by altered hypothalamic thermal regulation, pain threshold, and respiratory control, hyperphagia with rapid weight gain and, often, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Its etiopathogenesis remains undetermined. We investigated the presence of alterations to target genes and hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity in a patient with -ROHHAD syndrome.METHODS: A 3-year-old girl presenting with obesity after rapid weight gain was diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome based on clinical features and abnormal biochemical and functional testing results. Because of worsening of rapid symptoms and demonstration of oligoclonal bands on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, she was treated with plasmapheresis, methylprednisolone, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and azathioprine. Despite initial partial clinical improvement, the patient soon died of cardiorespiratory arrest. Post-mortem, whole exome sequencing, high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization array, and optimized indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis were performed on blood and CSF.RESULTS: No putative causative genomic variants compatible with dominant or recessive inheritance nor clinically significant structural rearrangement were detected. IIF on serum and CSF demonstrated the presence of anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamus autoantibodies.CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the involvement of autoimmunity in ROHHAD syndrome. However, response to immunosuppressive treatment was only transient and the patient died. Further cases are required to define the complex disease pathogenesis.

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