Objectives: Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) antibody is associated with clinically heterogeneous polyneuropathies. Our purpose was to compare neuropathy phenotypes identified by different anti-MAG tests’ results. Methods: Cohort study: Sera from 40 neuropathy anti-MAG EIA positive patients were tested for anti-MAG by Western blot (WB), for anti-peripheral nerve myelin (PNM) on monkey nerve by immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and for anti-HNK1 on rat CNS slices by IFA. Anti-sulfatide antibodies, for comparison, were also tested by EIA. Results: Among 40 anti-MAG EIA positive sera, 85% also had anti-PNM IFA reactivity and 67.5% bind HNK1 on rat CNS. Anti-HNK1 positive patients had the classical predominantly distal acquired demyelinating symmetric (DADS) neuropathy with a benign course, while anti-PNM positive but anti-HNK1 negative patients had predominantly axonal neuropathy with a high frequency of anti-sulfatide reactivity and the worst long-term prognosis. Anti-MAG EIA positive patients without anti-PNM or anti-HNK1 IFA reactivity had a CIDP-like polyneuropathy. Conclusion: Different methods to test for anti-MAG antibodies identify different clinical and electrophysiological findings, as well as long-term outcome. HNK1 reactivity is the strongest marker of DADS.
- Autoimmune diseases
- Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
- Myelin-associated glycoprotein