Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are specific antibodies for antigens in cytoplasmic granules of neutrophils and monocyte lysosomes, first reported in 1982. These antibodies can be detected with indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Two major patterns of staining are present: cytoplasmic ANCA (c-ANCA) and perinuclear ANCA (p-ANCA). Specific immunochemical assays demonstrate that c-ANCA are mainly antibodies to proteinase 3, and p-ANCA are antibodies to myeloperoxidase. ANCA are important serological markers for the primary systemic small-vessel vasculitis including microscopic polyangiitis, Wegener granulomatosis, Churg Strauss syndrome, and drug induced vasculitis. Numerous reports have established the clinical utility of ANCA titers in monitoring disease activity, relapses, and response to treatment. The c-ANCA pattern is highly specific for Wegener's granulomatosis; p-ANCA is found in sera of individual patients with microscopic polyangiitis and Churg Strauss syndrome. A rapid diagnosis of ANCA small-vessel vasculitis is critically important, because life-threatening injury to organs often develops quickly and is mitigated dramatically by immunosuppressive therapy.
|Translated title of the contribution||Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Progressi in Reumatologia|
|Publication status||Published - 2004|
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