Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels from birth, which exposes the arteries to high levels of atherogenic lipoproteins lifelong and results in a significantly increased risk of premature cardiovascular events. The diagnosis of FH, followed by an appropriate and early treatment is critical to reduce the cardiovascular burden in this population. Phase I-III clinical trials showed the benefit of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors, both alirocumab and evolocumab, in these patients with an average low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction ranging from −40% to −60%. The aim of this review is to address the unmet needs in cholesterol management, elucidate the biology and the clinical benefit of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibition and finally discuss the open gaps and future directions in the treatment of patients with heterozygous FH.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Pharmacology (medical)