Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in advanced metastatic melanoma: State of the art and future challenges

Rita S. Moreira, Joana Bicker, Felice Musicco, Agnese Persichetti, André M.P.T. Pereira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1 drugs, is an area in increasing development for its efficacy and advantages in the treatment of advanced metastatic melanoma. In fact, immunotherapy has been the target of several and recent studies in different types of cancer, namely in melanoma, a globally growing threat. Contributing to the increasing incidence of this cancer is climate change, particularly global warming of the past century, which has increased the tendency to spend more time outdoors and, consequently, exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation. Among the most relevant risk factors for melanoma is the increase in ultraviolet radiation due to ozone layer depletion, one of the main factors responsible for the incidence of new cases. Anti-PD-1 agents like Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab allow a more effective treatment, enhancing the duration of the responses to therapy and prolonging the survival of the patient. However, recent studies about safety and tolerability have stated that, although these drugs present less adverse effects and toxicity, they may lead to specific autoimmune-mediated adverse events. Overall, immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 agents represents a highly promising area in the treatment of some types of cancer such as melanoma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number117093
JournalLife Sciences
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Advanced metastatic melanoma
  • Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • Nivolumab
  • Pembrolizumab

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

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