Background/Aims: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), autoimmune thyroiditis (ATD), and celiac disease (CD) are at increased risk for developing other autoimmune diseases. We evaluated zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) prevalence in patients with ATD and/or CD in order to define the usefulness of ZnT8 autoantibodies for prediabetes screening. Methods: Eighty-one young patients with ATD and/or CD were included in the study; 32 subjects with clinical onset of T1DM were enrolled as a control group. GAD65, IA-2, and ZnT8 antibodies were measured. An intravenous glucose tolerance test, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and genomic analysis of HLA-DQA1* and -DQB1* were also considered in patients positive for autoantibodies. Results: The ZnT8 prevalence was higher in T1DM patients than in patients with other autoimmune diseases (p < 0.001); positive ZnT8 detection was found in 2 ATD (p = 0.004) and 3 ATD + CD (p = 0.04) patients. Positive ZnT8 was associated with GAD65 (p = 0.01) but not with IA-2 positivity. No correlation between ZnT8 detection and the number of T1DM-susceptible HLA-DQ heterodimers was found. Pathological C-peptide levels and insulin response were found in subjects with islet autoimmunity and genetic susceptibility. Conclusion: ZnT8 autoantibodies detection in ATD and/or CD patients is low, and routine ZnT8 screening is not justified. ZnT8 evaluation may be recommended in subjects with autoimmune diseases as a marker for predicting compromised insulin secretion.
- Autoimmune thyroiditis
- Celiac disease
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism