Antibiotic treatment for pyelonephritis in children: Multicentre randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

Giovanni Montini, Antonella Toffolo, Pietro Zucchetta, Roberto Dall'Amico, Daniela Gobber, Alessandro Calderan, Francesca Maschio, Luigi Pavanello, Pier Paolo Molinari, Dante Scorrano, Sergio Zanchetta, Walburga Cassar, Paolo Brisotto, Andrea Corsini, Stefano Sartori, Liviana Da Dalt, Luisa Murer, Graziella Zacchello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To compare the efficacy of oral antibiotic treatment alone with treatment started parenterally and completed orally in children with a first episode of acute pyelonephritis. Design: Multicentre, randomised controlled, open labelled, parallel group, non-inferiority trial. Setting: 28 paediatric units in north east Italy. Participants: 502 children aged 1 month to 9/l (SD 3.5) v 9.5x109/l (SD 3.1), mean difference 0.3 (-0.3 to 0.9); percentage with sterile urine 185/186 v 203/204, risk difference-0.05% (-1.5% to 1.4%)). Similar results were found in the subgroup of 278 children with confirmed acute pyelonephritis on scintigraphy at study entry. Conclusions: Treatment with oral antibiotics is as effective as parenteral then oral treatment in the management of the first episode of clinical pyelonephritis in children. Trial registration: Clinical Trials NCT00161330.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)386-388
Number of pages3
JournalBritish Medical Journal
Issue number7616
Publication statusPublished - Aug 25 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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