Antibodies and Diagnostic Tests in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola, Maria Orietta Borghi, Pier Luigi Meroni

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The current classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) recommend testing for three assays, namely antibodies against cardiolipin (aCL) and β2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) antibodies plus lupus anticoagulant (LA). β2GPI-dependent antibodies are those mainly responsible for the positivity in the APS laboratory assays and for most of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in the syndrome. To overcome the technical limitations of APS assays and to identify a broader spectrum of patients, several tests have been assessed as additional laboratory tools: antibodies against domain I of β2GPI, aCL, and anti-β2GPI IgA antibodies against PT are among the most promising but still under evaluation. Other nonclassification/diagnostic autoantibodies have been described in APS, some directly contributing to the clinical manifestations (antibodies against proteins involved in hemostasis, anti-platelet and anti-endothelial cell antibodies) and some others reflecting the ongoing systemic autoimmunity characteristic of the syndrome (anti-nuclear, anti-mitochondrial, anti-red cell, anti-thyroid antibodies, and antibodies against plasma lipoproteins).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSystemic Lupus Erythematosus: Basic, Applied and Clinical Aspects
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9780128020098, 9780128019177
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Anti-cardiolipin antibodies
  • Anti-phospholipid antibodies
  • Anti-prothrombin antibodies
  • Anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Autoantibodies
  • Lupus anticoagulant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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