Antidepressants for patients with tinnitus

Paolo Baldo, Carolyn Doree, Renzo Lazzarini, Paola Molin, Don McFerran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2006. Tinnitus is described as the perception of sound or noise in the absence of real acoustic stimulation. It has been compared with chronic pain, and may be associated with depression or depressive symptoms which can affect quality of life and the ability to work. Antidepressant drugs have been used to treat tinnitus in patients with and without depressive symptoms. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of tinnitus and to ascertain whether any benefit is due to a direct tinnitus effect or a secondary effect due to treatment of concomitant depressive states. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; Psycinfo; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS; mRCT and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 22 October 2008. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled clinical studies of antidepressant drugs versus placebo in patients with tinnitus. Data collection and analysis: The studies retrieved were critically appraised and data extracted independently by two authors. Where necessary study authors were contacted for further information. Main results: Six trials involving 610 patientswere included. Four of these trials looked at the effect of tricyclic antidepressants on tinnitus, investigating 405 patients. One trial investigated the effect of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in a group of 120 patients. One study investigated trazodone, an atypical antidepressant, versus placebo. Only the trial using the SSRI drug reached the highest quality standard. None of the other included trials met the highest quality standard, due to use of inadequate outcome measures, large drop-out rates or failure to separate the effects on tinnitus from the effects on symptoms of anxiety and depression. All the trials assessing tricyclic antidepressants suggested that there was a slight improvement in tinnitus but these effectsmay have been attributable tomethodological bias. The trial that investigated the SSRI drug found no overall improvement in any of the validated outcome measures that were used in the study although there was possible benefit for a subgroup that received higher doses of the drug. This observation merits further investigation. In the trial investigating trazodone, the results showed an improvement in tinnitus intensity and in quality of life after treatment, but in neither case reached statistical significance. Reports of side effects including sedation, sexual dysfunction and dry mouth were common. Authors' conclusions: There is as yet insufficient evidence to say that antidepressant drug therapy improves tinnitus.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberCD003853
JournalThe Cochrane database of systematic reviews
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Antidepressive agents [*therapeutic use]
  • Depression [*drug therapy]
  • Humans
  • Randomized controlled trials as topic
  • Serotonin uptake inhibitors [*therapeutic use]
  • Tinnitus [*drug therapy; psychology]

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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