Antimicrobial effectiveness of etidronate powder (Dual Rinse® HEDP) and two EDTA preparations against Enterococcus faecalis: a preliminary laboratory study

Luciano Giardino, Paolo Savadori, Luigi Generali, Zahed Mohammadi, Massimo Del Fabbro, Elena De Vecchi, Alessandro Bidossi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of two chelating agents: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) combined or not with detergents, and etidronic acid combined with sterile saline. The bacterial inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC, respectively) were determined on Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 4083 strain. Antimicrobial tests were performed on a biofilm model after treatment with the chelating agents at different times (1, 3, and 5 min) using a biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) assays. Quantification of cell biomass and percentage of live and dead cells in the biomass was assessed for each group. The normality of the distributions for each variable was assessed using the D’Agostino and Pearson’s omnibus normality test. The comparison of bacterial viability among groups and between any two groups was performed using the non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and the Dunn’s test, respectively. No significant between-group difference was observed regarding biomass reduction. On the other hand, EDTA combined with detergents displayed a substantial increase of the dead bacteria ranging between 35 and 43%; whereas, the number of cells killed in the control group and in the other treated groups always ranged between 1 and 6%, at all experimental times. The addition of detergents to EDTA can improve its anti-biofilm activity by reducing EPS production and enhancing the killing of sessile bacterial cells. Clinical relevance EDTA presents a relevant antimicrobial activity when combined with surface-active agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)396-405
Number of pages10
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2020


  • Biofilm
  • Chelating agents
  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy
  • Detergents
  • Enterococcus faecalis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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